字幕表 動画を再生する 英語字幕をプリント So have you ever wondered who actually invented the internet? Some people have become zillionaires thanks to the internet But all they did was invent clever ways of using the Internet so the person who invented the internet should be a gazillionaire equivalent to say God, shouldn't they? But who should get the credit then? Was it a British geek in a Swiss underground lab? Clever Americans threatened with nuclear annihilation by the Russians Nice idea. French scientists who decided to call the computer network the Le Internet. Interesting. Or was it thanks to a myriad of smart scientists working on something they knew was useful but didn't realize would be so big. Well let's try and get some facts straight There's the internet, the whole bunch of computer networks connected to each other, and then there's the World Wide Web, a way of making it easier to share information using all those interconnected computers. The Internet as we know it today was at least forty years in the making. One popular but wrong story is that the Internet was developed by the USA , so they had a communication network that would survive a nuclear war. According to one of the founders of the first network the, ARPANET, in the 1960s, this first network experiment wasn't about communication at all. It was about optimizing processor usage of time-sharing which basically meant that scientists could share computer power, too That was because until the nineteen sixties there was basically no network, you had big machines called mainframes which sat in a room and process computing tasks one at a time. With time-sharing these behemoths could process several tasks at a time which meant that power could be used by several scientists at once. And obviously once you start connecting computers together, you start to wonder about what you need to do to make communications between them easier. Scientists around the world were trying to solve this problem。 so let's look at some of the other key concepts that were developed elsewhere. starting with packet switching. In Britain, there was a commercial network developed by the National Physical Laboratory but which never really got off the ground because it didn't get funding but they did come up with the idea of packet switching, a way of avoiding congestion in busy networks by cutting up data at one end and putting it back together at the other. The French also played a role, they were working on a scientific network called CYCLADES but they didn't have a big budget so they decided to work on direct connections between computers as opposed to working with Gateway computer. Now as an aside here this admittedly isn't very scientific But according to one theory, a spin off of their research was the word "Internet". But you don't have to believe it if you don't want to. so now it's the early nineteen seventies There's quite a lot of computer infrastructure but communication is awkward and patchy, because different networks can't talk to each other. TCP IP solves this problem. The TCP/IP protocols form the basic communication language of the Internet which labels the packets of data and make sure that even though some pieces of the same data take a different route, they all arrive at their destination and can be reassembled. Networks really began communicating with each other in 1975. so you could argue that was the beginning of the Internet. Email was also very important it was developed for ARPANET in 1972. Most Internet traffic in 1976 was email because academics thought electronic post-it notes were dead core. With networks that could talk to each other, communication was becoming easier. But all this communication was just text based and it was pretty ugly to look at. In the nineteen eighties a brat called Timothy Berners-Lee spent time with CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research where physicists are trying to work out what the universe is made of. He wanted to manage the scientists information and make it possible for them to share and interconnect their work easily making progress more likely. He did so by inventing an interface using HTTP HTML and URL's that made internet browsers possible. He called his browser the World Wide Web, so he didn't invent the Internet but he did invented the web. The first-ever website which he created was at CERN in France in August 1991. So once the initial infrastructure was in place the key technologies have been invented, Internet message boards exploded in the nineteen eighties. The phone company saw the commercial potential of digital communication. Web browser spread like wildfire in the early nineteen nineties and ordinary people discovered email then the internet expanded rapidly and steadily and became workable for the masses from about nineteen ninety-five. Hold on, didn't US Vice President Al Gore invent the internet? No. And if you read what he said exactly you know he never claimed to have done. But many people credit him with energetically pushing legislation that encouraged the spread of the Internet. The internet exists because we need to communicate and most of us like doing it. That's why humans have become dominant species on Earth. You could argue the Internet is a natural evolutionary step and a manifestation of that need. It wasn't invented by anyone in particular but when the building blocks were put together by all those cool scientists from all over the place, the Internet became a communication tool, a retail tool a research tool, a propaganda tool, the spying tool, a shopping tool ,a dating tool and entertainment tool And a way of skiving off work while making it look like you're working or studying which is what you may be doing now. Ultimately though, you're communicating especially if you leave a comment and that might make you a better human being.