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  • "Hi, Bob."

    「やあ、ボブ」

  • "Morning, Kelly. The tulips looks great."

    「おはよう、ケリー。チューリップがきれいだね」

  • Have you ever wondered how your dog experiences the world?

    犬はどうやって世界を感じ取っているのか、不思議に思ったことはありますか?

  • Here's what she sees.

    これが、犬が見ているものです。

  • Not terribly interesting.

    ものすごく面白いというわけではありませんね。

  • But what she smells, that's a totally different story.

    でも、感じ取るにおいについては、まったく別問題です。

  • And it begins at her wonderfully developed nose.

    素晴らしく発達した鼻から、すべては始まります。

  • As your dog catches the first hints of fresh air, her nose's moist, spongy outside helps capture any scents the breeze carries.

    犬が、新鮮な空気にかすかに触れると

  • The ability to smell separately with each nostril, smelling in stereo, helps to determine the direction of the smell's source,

    湿った、スポンジのような鼻の外部で、そよ風が運んでいるどんな香りをもかぎ取ることができます。

  • so that within the first few moments of sniffing, the dog starts to become aware of not just what kinds of things are out there but also where they're located.

    2つの鼻の穴で別々ににおいをかぐことができます。

  • As air enters the nose, a small fold of tissue divides it into two separate folds, one for breathing and one just for smelling.

    つまりステレオ型の嗅覚なんですね。

  • This second airflow enters a region filled with highly specialized olfactory receptor cells, several hundred millions of them, compared to our five million.

    これによって、においの発生源の方向を特定することができ

  • And unlike our clumsy way of breathing in and out through the same passage, dogs exhale through slits at the side of their nose,

    クンクンとし始めてすぐに

  • creating swirls of air that help draw in new odor molecules and allow odor concentration to build up over mulitple sniffs.

    どんなものがあるのかだけでなく

  • But all that impressive nasal architecture wouldn't be much help without something to process the loads of information the nose scoops up.

    それがどこにあるのかも、認識し始めるのです。

  • And it turns out that the olfactory system dedicated to processing smells takes up many times more relative brain area in dogs than in humans.

    空気が鼻の中に入ると

  • All of this allows dogs to distinguish and remember a staggering variety of specific scents at concentrations up to 100 million times less than what our noses can detect.

    小さなひだ状の組織が、その空気を2つのひだに分けます。

  • If you can smell a spritz of perfume in a small room, a dog would have no trouble smelling it in an enclosed stadium and distinguishing its ingredients to boot.

    1つは呼吸のため、もう1つはにおいをかぐためです。

  • And everything in the street, every passing person or car, any contents of the neighbor's trash, each type of tree,

    この2つ目の空気の流れは

  • and all the birds and insects in it has a distinct odor profile telling your dog what it is, where it is, and which direction it's moving in.

    高度に特化した嗅覚受容細胞で満たされた部分へと入ります。

  • Besides being much more powerful than ours, a dog's sense of smell can pick up things that can't even be seen at all.

    この細胞は、人間では500万ですが、犬には何億もあります。

  • A whole separate olfactory system, called the vomeronasal organ, above the roof of the mouth, detects the hormones all animals, including humans, naturally release.

    そして、人間はぎこちなく、同じ鼻孔を通して呼吸をしますが

  • It lets dogs identify potential mates, or distinguish between friendly and hostile animals.

    犬は鼻の横側にある切り込みから息を吐きだし

  • It alerts them to our various emotional states, and it can even tell them when someone is pregnant or sick.

    空気の渦を作り出して、新しいにおいの分子を取り入れて

  • Because olfaction is more primal than other senses, bypassing the thalamus to connect directly to the brain structures involving emotion and instinct,

    何度かかぐことにより、においの濃度を高められるようにしているのです。

  • we might even say a dog's perception is more immediate and visceral than ours.

    でも、こんなにすごい鼻の構造を持っていても

  • But the most amazing thing about your dog's nose is that it can traverse time.

    その鼻がかぎ取った大量の情報を処理するものがなければ、あまり意味がありませんね。

  • The past appears in tracks left by passersby, and by the warmth of a recently parked car or the residue of where you've been and what you've done recently.

    犬の脳では、においを処理するのに特化した嗅覚系が

  • Landmarks like fire hydrants and trees are aromatic bulletin boards carrying messages of who's been by, what they've been eating, and how they're feeling.

    関係する部分を、人間の何倍も多く占めていることが分かっています。

  • And the future is in the breeze, alerting them to something or someone approaching long before you see them.

    この全てにより、犬は

  • Where we see and hear something at a single moment, a dog smells an entire story from start to finish.

    圧倒的な種類のにおいを区別、記憶することができるのですね。

  • In some of the best examples of canine-human collaboration, dogs help us by sharing and reacting to those stories.

    しかも、人間の鼻が探知できるものの、最高1億倍薄い濃度で大丈夫なのです。

  • They can respond with kindness to people in distress, or with aggression to threats because stress and anger manifest as a cloud of hormones recognizable to the dog's nose.

    あなたが小さな部屋で、かすかに香水の香りをかぐことができるなら

  • With the proper training, they can even alert us to invisible threats ranging from bombs to cancer.

    犬は問題なく、その香りを屋根付きのスタジアムでかぎ取り

  • As it turns out, humanity's best friend is not one who experiences the same things we do, but one whose incredible nose reveals a whole other world beyond our eyes.

    おまけにその成分まで判別することができるでしょう。

"Hi, Bob."

「やあ、ボブ」

字幕と単語
審査済み この字幕は審査済みです

B1 中級 日本語 におい かぎ 嗅覚 空気 香り 人間

【TED-Ed】【知識系】犬は鼻を使ってどんなことが分かる?(How do dogs "see" with their noses? - Alexandra Horowitz)

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    稲葉白兎   に公開 2018 年 12 月 15 日
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