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  • I want you guys to imagine that you're a soldier running through the battlefield.

    翻訳: Yasushi Aoki 校正: Masaki Yanagishita

  • Now, you're shot in the leg with a bullet, which severs your femoral artery.

    自分が戦場をかける 兵士だと

  • Now, this bleed is extremely traumatic and can kill you in less than three minutes.

    想像してください

  • Unfortunately, by the time that a medic actually gets to you,

    脚を撃たれてしまい

  • what the medic has on his or her belt can take five minutes or more,

    大腿動脈が切れたとします

  • with the application of pressure, to stop that type of bleed.

    大量に出血し

  • Now, this problem is not only a huge problem for the military,

    ものの3分で 絶命する危険があります

  • but it's also a huge problem that's epidemic throughout the entire medical field,

    たとえ衛生兵が

  • which is how do we actually look at wounds and how do we stop them quickly in a way that can work with the body?

    駆けつけてくれたとしても

  • So now, what I've been working on for the last four years is to develop smart biomaterials,

    彼らの持つ止血帯で

  • which are actually materials that will work with the body, helping it to heal

    圧迫して止血する方法だと

  • and helping it to allow the wounds to heal normally.

    血が止まるまでに 5分以上かかるかもしれません

  • So now, before we do this, we have to take a much closer look at actually how does the body work.

    これは戦場でだけの 問題ではなく

  • So now, everybody here knows that the body is made up of cells.

    医療分野全体で

  • So the cell is the most basic unit of life. But not many people know what else.

    よく直面する 重要な問題です

  • But it actually turns out that your cells sit in this mesh of complicated fibers,

    傷を見て

  • proteins and sugars known as the extracellular matrix.

    体に合った方法で

  • So now, the ECM is actually this mesh that holds the cells in place,

    いかに素早く血を止めるか?

  • provides structure for your tissues, but it also gives the cells a home.

    この4年間 私が 取り組んできたのは

  • It allows them to feel what they're doing, where they are,

    ハイテクな 生体適合物質を開発し

  • and tells them how to act and how to behave.

    体に働きかけて

  • And it actually turns out that the extracellular matrix is different from every single part of the body.

    傷の自然な治癒を

  • So the ECM in my skin is different than the ECM in my liver,

    助けるということです

  • and the ECM in different parts of the same organ actually vary,

    そのことについて 説明する前に

  • so it's very difficult to be able to have a product that will react to the local extracellular matrix,

    体がどう機能するのか 見てみましょう

  • which is exactly what we're trying to do.

    体が細胞で できているのは

  • So now, for example, think of the rainforest.

    皆さん ご存じですね

  • You have the canopy, you have the understory, and you have the forest floor.

    細胞は生物を構成する 最も基本的な要素ですが

  • Now, all of these parts of the forest are made up of different plants,

    それ以上のことを知っている人は あまりいません

  • and different animals call them home.

    細胞というのは

  • So just like that, the extracellular matrix is incredibly diverse in three dimensions.

    細胞外マトリックス(ECM)と呼ばれる

  • On top of that, the extracellular matrix is responsible for all wound healing,

    線維や タンパク質や 糖からなる

  • so if you imagine cutting the body, you actually have to rebuild this very complex ECM

    複雑な編み目の中に 埋め込まれています

  • in order to get it to form again,

    ECMは

  • and a scar, in fact, is actually poorly formed extracellular matrix.

    細胞を支えて

  • So now, behind me is an animation of the extracellular matrix.

    組織に構造を 与えると同時に

  • So as you see, your cells sit in this complicated mesh

    個々の細胞にとっての 棲み家として

  • and as you move throughout the tissue, the extracellular matrix changes.

    細胞が何をし どこにいて

  • So now every other piece of technology on the market

    どう振る舞うべきかを

  • can only manage a two- dimensional approximation of the extracellular matrix,

    分かるようにしています

  • which means that it doesn't fit in with the tissue itself.

    ECMは体の部位ごとに

  • So when I was a freshman at NYU, what I discovered was

    異なっています

  • you could actually take small pieces of plant-derived polymers and reassemble them onto the wound.

    皮膚のECMは

  • So if you have a bleeding wound like the one behind me, you can actually put our material onto this,

    肝臓のECMとは異なるし

  • and just like Lego blocks, it'll reassemble into the local tissue.

    同じ臓器の中でも 場所によってECMは異なります

  • So that means if you put it onto liver, it turns into something that looks like liver,

    そのためECMと反応する

  • and if you put it onto skin, it turns into something that looks just like skin.

    医薬品を作るのは

  • So when you put the gel on, it actually reassembles into this local tissue.

    とても難しく

  • So now, this has a whole bunch of applications,

    それが私の 取り組んでいることです

  • but basically the idea is, wherever you put this product, you're able to reassemble into it immediately.

    熱帯雨林を例に 考えてみましょう

  • Now, this is a simulated arterial bleedblood warningat twice human artery pressure.

    森には林冠があり 低木層があり

  • So now, this type of bleed is incredibly traumatic, and like I said before,

    林床があります

  • would actually take five minutes or more with pressure to be able to stop.

    森のそれぞれの部位は

  • Now, in the time that it takes me to introduce the bleed itself, our material is able to stop that bleed,

    異なる植物で構成され

  • and it's because it actually goes on and works with the body to heal,

    異なる種類の動物が 棲み家としています

  • so it reassembles into this piece of meat,

    それと同様に ECMもまた

  • and then the blood actually recognizes that that's happening,

    3次元的な 多様性を持っています

  • and produces fibrin, producing a very fast clot in less than 10 seconds.

    それに加え ECMは

  • So now this technologyThank you.

    あらゆる傷を治す 役割を担っています

  • So now this technology, by January, will be in the hands of veterinarians,

    体をどこか切った場合

  • and we're working very diligently to try to get it into the hands of doctors, hopefully within the next year.

    この複雑なECMを

  • But really, once again, I want you guys to imagine that you are a soldier running through a battlefield.

    再び形成する

  • Now, you get hit in the leg with a bullet, and instead of bleeding out in three minutes,

    必要があります

  • you pull a small pack of gel out of your belt, and with the press of a button,

    傷痕というのは

  • you're able to stop your own bleed and you're on your way to recovery.

    お粗末に形成された ECMなのです

  • Thank you very much.

    今映っているのは

I want you guys to imagine that you're a soldier running through the battlefield.

翻訳: Yasushi Aoki 校正: Masaki Yanagishita

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B1 中級 日本語 TED 細胞 出血 ジェル 動脈 肝臓

TED】ジョー・ランドリーナ。このジェルで出血を瞬時に止めることができる(Joe Landolina: This gel can make you stop bleeding instant) (【TED】Joe Landolina: This gel can make you stop bleeding instantly (Joe Landolina: This gel can make you stop bleeding instantly))

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    Go Tutor に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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