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  • How many times does the chorus repeat in your favorite song?

    あなたのお気に入りの歌では コーラスは何回くり返されますか?

  • And, take a moment to think, how many times have you listened to it?

    考えてみて下さい その曲を何回聴いたことがあるでしょうか?

  • Chances are you've heard that chorus repeated dozens, if not, hundreds of times, and it's not just popular songs in the West that repeat a lot.

    コーラスを何百回とは言わずとも 何十回も聴いたことでしょう

  • Repetition is a feature that music from cultures around the world tends to share.

    何度もくり返すのは 西欧のポップソングだけではないのです

  • So, why does music rely so heavily on repetition?

    くり返しは世界中の文化の音楽が 共有している特徴です

  • One part of the answer comes from what psychologists call "the mere-exposure effect".

    では どうして音楽は くり返しを多用するのでしょう?

  • In short, people tend to prefer things they've been exposed to before.

    答えのひとつは心理学者が 「単純接触効果」と呼ぶものにあります

  • For example, a song comes on the radio that we don't particularly like, but then we hear the song at the grocery store, at the movie theater and again on the street corner.

    つまり 人々は接触したことのあるものを 好む傾向にあるのです

  • Soon, we are tapping to the beat, singing the words, even downloading the track.

    たとえば ラジオから聞こえる歌が 特に好きでなくても

  • This mere-exposure effect doesn't just work for songs.

    同じ曲を食料品店や映画館―

  • It also works for everything from shapes to Super Bowl ads.

    街角でも耳にするとします

  • So, what makes repetition so uniquely prevalent in music?

    やがて 私たちはビートに乗って 歌詞を口ずさみ

  • To investigate, psychologists asked people to listen to musical compositions that avoided exact repetition.

    曲をダウンロードさえするのです

  • They heard excerpts from these pieces in either their original form, or in a version that had been digitally altered to include repetition.

    この単純接触効果は 歌だけのものではありません

  • Although the original versions had been composed by some of the most respected 20th century composers, and the repetitive versions had been assembled by brute force audio editing, people rated the repetitive versions as more enjoyable, more interesting and more likely to have been composed by a human artist.

    物の形やスーパーボウルの広告まで あらゆるものに当てはまります

  • Musical repetition is deeply compelling.

    では 音楽でくり返しが特に よく見られるのはなぜでしょう?

  • Think about the Muppets classic, "Mahna Mahna."

    これを調べるために 心理学者は 完全なくり返しを避けた音楽を人々に聴かせました人々

  • If you've heard it before, it's almost impossible after I sing, "Mahna mahna," not to respond, "Do doo do do do."

    人々はこれらの曲の一部を 原曲どおりに

  • Repetition connects each bit of music irresistibly to the next bit of music that follows it.

    あるいはくり返しを含むよう 編集されたものを聞かされました

  • So when you hear a few notes, you're already imagining what's coming next.

    原曲は20世紀の最も偉大な作曲家たちが作ったものである一方で

  • Your mind is unconsciously singing along, and without noticing, you might start humming out loud.

    くり返しを含むものは音楽編集ソフトで 無理矢理に作られたものであるのに

  • Recent studies have shown that when people hear a segment of music repeated, they are more likely to move or tap along to it.

    人々はくり返しを含むものの方を より楽しめて より興味深いと評価し

  • Repetition invites us into music as imagined participants, rather than as passive listeners.

    人間の芸術家が作曲したものだと 予想したのです

  • Research has also shown that listeners shift their attention across musical repetitions, focusing on different aspects of the sound on each new listen.

    音楽的くり返しは 力強く訴えかけてきます

  • You might notice the melody of a phrase the first time, but when it's repeated, your attention shifts to how the guitarist bends a pitch.

    マペットの例の曲 『マナマナ』を考えてみましょう

  • This also occurs in language, with something called semantic satiation.

    聴いたことがあるなら

  • Repeating a word like atlas ad nauseam can make you stop thinking about what the word means, and instead focus on the sounds: the odd way the "L" follows the "T."

    私が「マナマナ」と歌った後に

  • In this way, repetition can open up new worlds of sound not accessible on first hearing.

    「ドゥドゥードゥドゥドゥ」と 歌わずにはいられないでしょう

  • The "L" following the "T" might not be aesthetically relevant to "atlas," but the guitarist pitch bending might be of critical expressive importance.

    くり返しは音楽の各部分を抗いがたい力で 後に続く部分へとつなげているのです

  • "The speech to song illusion" captures how simply repeating a sentence a number of times shifts listeners attention to the pitch and temporal aspects of the sound, so that the repeated spoken language actually begins to sound like it is being sung.

    ですから 人はいくつか音を聞けば 次に何が来るかを想像し始めます

  • A similar effect happens with random sequences of sound.

    あなたは頭で無意識のうちに 一緒に歌っており、気づかぬままに 実際に鼻歌を歌うこともあるのです

  • People will rate random sequences they've heard on repeated loop as more musical than a random sequence they've only heard once.

    最近の研究によると 人は音楽の 一節のくり返しに合わせ

  • Repetition gives rise to a kind of orientation to sound that we think of as distinctively musical, where we're listening along with the sound, engaging imaginatively with the note about to happen.

    動いたり手拍子をする 傾向が強いことがわかりました

  • This mode of listening ties in with our susceptibility to musical ear worms, where segments of music burrow into our head, and play again and again, as if stuck on repeat.

    くり返しによって 私たちは 受動的な聴き手ではなく

  • Critics are often embarrassed by music's repetitiveness, finding it childish or regressive, but repetition, far from an embarrassment, is actually a key feature that gives rise to the kind of experience we think about as musical.

    参加者として 音楽の場へと誘われていきます

How many times does the chorus repeat in your favorite song?

あなたのお気に入りの歌では コーラスは何回くり返されますか?

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B1 中級 日本語 TED-Ed くり 音楽 返し 聴く 聴い

【リスニング対策】【TED-Ed】音楽のくり返しが愛される理由 ― エリザベス・ヘルムート・マーグリス (Why we love repetition in music - Elizabeth Hellmuth Margulis)

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    稲葉白兎 に公開 2015 年 03 月 29 日
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