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  • When I was preparing for this talk, I went to search for a couple of quotes that I can share with you.

    翻訳: Emi Kamiya 校正: Yuko Yoshida

  • Good news, I found three that I particularly liked.

    この講演の準備にあたり

  • The first by Samuel Johnson, who said,

    皆さんにご紹介できるような

  • When making your choice in life, do not forget to live.”

    名言を探しました

  • The second by Aeschylus, who reminded us that,

    うれしいことに 良さそうなのが

  • Happiness is a choice that requires effort.”

    3つ見つかりました

  • And the third is one by Groucho Marx who said,

    1つ目はサミュエル・ジョンソンの言葉です

  • “I wouldn’t want to choose to belong to any club that would have me as a member.”

    「人生において選択をする時

  • Now, bad news, I didn’t know which one of these quotes to choose and share with you.

    生きることを蔑ろにしてはならない」

  • The sweet anxiety of choice.

    2つ目はアイスキュロスによる戒めです

  • In today’s times of post-industrial capitalism,

    「幸福とは 努力を要する選択のことである」

  • choice, together with individual freedom and the idea of self-making,

    3つ目はグルーチョ・マルクスの言葉です

  • has been elevated to an ideal.

    「私を会員にするようなクラブに

  • Now, together with this, we also have a belief in endless progress.

    私は入りたいと思わない」

  • But the underside of this ideology has been an increase of anxiety,

    ただ困ったことに

  • feeling of guilt, feeling of being inadequate,

    どの名言を皆さんに紹介するか

  • feeling that we are failing in our choices.

    私には決められませんでした

  • Sadly, this ideology of individual choice has prevented us to think about social changes.

    選択がもたらす甘美な不安です

  • It appears that this ideology was actually very efficient in pacifying us as political and social thinkers.

    このポスト産業資本主義の時代において

  • Instead of making social critique, we are more and more engaging in self-critique,

    選択というものは 個人の自由や

  • sometimes to the point of self-destruction.

    自ら創り出すべきという考えと相まって

  • Now, how come that ideology of choice is still so powerful,

    理想にまで持ち上げられました

  • even among people who have not many things to choose among?

    これに加え 私たちは 進歩が永遠に続くと

  • How come that even people who are poor very much still identify with the idea of choice, the kind of rational idea of choice which we embrace?

    信じているところがあります

  • Now, the ideology of choice is very successful in sort of opening for us

    しかし このイデオロギーには

  • a space to think about some imagined future.

    マイナス面もあり

  • Let me give you an example.

    不安や罪悪感

  • My friend Manya, when she was a student at university in California,

    自分には力が足りないという感覚や

  • was earning money by working for a car dealer.

    選択に失敗しているという感覚を 増幅させています

  • Now, Manya, when she encountered the typical customer,

    不幸にも この個人の選択という イデオロギーのために

  • would debate with him about his life style, how much he wants to spend,

    私たちは社会的な変化について 考えられなくなっています

  • how many children he has, what does he need the car for?

    どうやら このイデオロギーは

  • They would usually come to a good conclusion what would be a perfect car.

    政治や社会について考える私たちの

  • Now, before Manya’s customer would go home and think things through,

    牙を抜くのに非常に有効だったようです

  • she would say to him,

    社会を批判する代わりに

  • The car that you are buying now is perfect,

    私たちは自己批判にどんどん力を注ぎ

  • but in the few year’s time, when your kids will be already out of the house,

    時には自暴自棄にまで至ってしまいます

  • when you will have a little bit more money,

    何故この選択のイデオロギーは

  • that other car will be ideal.

    いまだに強力で

  • But what you are buying now is great.”

    さほど選択肢を持たない人々にまで

  • Now, the majority of Manya’s customers who came back the next day bought that other car,

    影響するのでしょうか

  • the car they did not need, the car that cost far too much money.

    何故 貧しい人々でさえ

  • Now, Manya became so successful in selling cars that soon she moved on to selling airplanes.

    私たちが尊重する 選択という

  • And knowing so much about the psychology of people

    合理的とも言える概念を

  • prepared her well for her current job, which is that of a psychoanalyst.

    かなり身近に感じるのでしょうか

  • Now, why were Manya’s customers so irrational?

    選択のイデオロギーのお蔭で

  • Manya’s success was that she was able to open in their heads an image of an idealized future,

    私たちは 未来を想像し

  • an image of themselves when they are already more successful, freer.

    思いを馳せるように なってしまっています

  • And for them, choose that other car was as if they are coming closer to this ideal

    例を挙げましょう

  • in which it was as if Manya already saw them.

    私の友人のマーニャは

  • Now, we rarely make really totally rational choices.

    カリフォルニアの大学時代に

  • Choices are influenced by our unconscious, by our community.

    自動車ディーラーで働いて

  • Were often choosing by guessing, what would other people think about our choice?

    お金を稼いでいました

  • Also we are choosing by looking at what others are choosing.

    マーニャの典型的な接客術は

  • Were also guessing what is socially acceptable choice.

    客のライフスタイルや

  • Now, because of this, we actually even after we have already chosen, like bought a car,

    車にいくら使いたいか

  • endlessly read reviews about cars,

    子どもは何人いるか

  • as if we still want to convince ourselves that we made the right choice.

    車を持つ目的などを

  • Now, choices are anxiety-provoking.

    話し合うというものでした

  • They are linked to risks, losses.

    大抵の場合 客は最終的に

  • They are highly unpredictable.

    どの車が最適か絞り込みます

  • Now, because of this, people have now more and more problems that they are not choosing anything.

    マーニャは 客が家に帰って

  • Not long ago, I was at a wedding reception.

    あれこれ検討する前に

  • And I met a young, beautiful woman who immediately started telling me about her anxiety over choice.

    こう言っておきます

  • She said to me, “I needed one month to decide which dress to wear.”

    「お客様が今 買おうとされている車は 完璧です

  • Then she said, “For weeks I was researching which hotel to stay for this one night.

    ただ 数年後には

  • And now, I need to choose a sperm donor.”

    お子様方は家を出て

  • I looked at this woman in shock.

    経済的にも余裕ができますから

  • Sperm donor? What’s the rush?”

    あちらの車がピッタリになるでしょう

  • She said, “I’m turning 40 at the end of this year,

    ですが今 買おうとなさっている車は バッチリです」

  • and I’ve been so bad in choosing men in my life.”

    すると翌日 店に戻ってきた

  • Now choice, because it’s linked to risks, is anxiety-provoking.

    マーニャの客の大多数は

  • And it was already the famous Danish philosopherren Kierkegaard

    「あちらの車」を買いました

  • who pointed out that anxiety is linked to the possibility of possibility.

    必要でもなければ

  • Now, we think today that we can prevent these risks.

    うんとお金のかかる車です

  • We have endless market analysis,

    マーニャは車の販売で大成功して

  • projections of the future earnings.

    まもなく航空機の販売に転身しました

  • Even with market, which is about chance, randomness, we think we can predict rationally where it’s going.

    (笑)

  • Now, chance is actually becoming very traumatic.

    人間の心理を熟知した彼女は 満を持して

  • Last year, my friend Bernard Harcourt at the University of Chicago organized an event,

    現在の職に就きました

  • a conference on the idea of chance.

    精神分析学者です

  • He and I were together on the panel, and just before delivering our papers,

    何故マーニャの客たちは 分別を失ったのでしょうか

  • we didn’t know each other’s papers, we decided to take chance seriously.

    マーニャが成功したのは

  • So we informed our audience that what they will just now hear will be a random paper,

    彼女が客の頭の中に

  • a mixture of the two papers, which we didn’t know what you know, each was writing.

    理想的な未来を描かせ

  • Now, we delivered the conference in such a way.

    今より成功し 自由の多い

  • Bernard read his first paragraph.

    自分たちの姿を 思い描かせることができたからです

  • I read my first paragraph.

    客にとって「あちらの車」を選ぶことは

  • Bernard read his second paragraph, I read my second paragraph,

    まるでその理想に 近づいているような感覚で

  • in this way towards the end of our papers.

    マーニャがそれを見透かしたかのように 感じられたのです

  • Now, you will be surprised that a majority of our audience

    私たちが完全に理性的な選択をするのは まれです

  • did not think that what they’d just listened was a complete random paper.

    選択は私たち自身の無意識や

  • They couldn’t believe that speaking from the position of authority

    周りの人たちに影響されます

  • like two professors we were, we would take you know, chance seriously.

    私たちは選択するに当たり

  • They thought we prepared the paper together

    大抵 他の人が自分の選択を

  • and was just joking that it’s random.

    どう思うか考えています

  • Now, we live in times with a lot of information, big data,

    他の人の選択を見て

  • a lot of knowledge about the insides of our body.

    選択することもあります

  • We decoded our genome.

    また社会的に容認される選択を 気にしてもいます

  • We know about our brains more than before.

    このため私たちは

  • But surprisingly, people are more and more turning a blind eye in front of this knowledge.

    選択をし終わった後でさえ

  • Ignorance and denial are on the rise.

    たとえば車を買った後も

  • Now, in regard to current economic crisis,

    車のレビューを読み漁るのです

  • we think that we will just wake up again and everything will be the same as before,

    あたかも自分の選択は正しかったと

  • and no political or social changes are needed.

    自分を納得させたいかのようです

  • In regard to ecological crisis, we think nothing needs to be done just now,

    選択は不安を誘発します

  • or others need to act before us.

    選択はリスクや損失と関係しています

  • Or even when ecological crisis already happens, like the catastrophe in Fukushima,

    まったく予測不可能です

  • often we have people living in the same environment with the same amount of information

    このため人々は

  • and half of them will be anxious about radiation and half of them will ignore it.

    何一つ選べないという問題を

  • Now, psychoanalysts know very well that people surprisingly don’t have passion for knowledge,

    ますます抱えるようになっています

  • but passion for ignorance.

    先日 ある結婚式に出席して

  • Now, what does that mean?

    若くて美しい女性に出会いました

  • Let’s say when we are facing a life-threatening illness,

    彼女は会うなり私に選択に関する不安を 打ち明け始めました

  • a lot of people don’t want to know that.

    「どのドレスにするか

  • They rather prefer denying the illness, which is why it’s not so wise to inform them if they don’t ask.

    決めるのに1ヶ月かかったの」

  • Surprisingly, research shows that sometimes people who deny their illness live longer than those who are rationally choosing the best treatment.

    さらに「今夜泊まるホテルを探すのに

  • Now, this ignorance, however, is not very helpful on the level of the social.

    何週間もかかったわ」

  • When were ignorant about where we are heading,

    「今は精子提供者を選ばなくちゃ ならないの」

  • you know, a lot of social damage can be caused.

    (笑)

  • Now, on top of facing ignorance, were also facing today some kind of obviousness.

    私は驚いて彼女の顔を見ました

  • Now, it was French philosopher Louis Althusser who pointed out

    「精子提供者?何を急いでいるの?」

  • that ideology functions in such a way that it creates a veil of obviousness.

    すると彼女はこう言いました 「今年で40歳になるんだけど

  • Before we kind of do any social critique,

    私 男性を見る目がなくて」

  • it’s necessary really to lift that veil of obviousness

    選択は リスクにつながるため

  • and to think through a little bit differently.

    不安を誘発します

  • If we go back to this ideology of individual, rational choice we often embrace,

    かの有名なデンマークの哲学者

  • it’s necessary precisely here to lift this obviousness

    セーレン・キェルケゴールは

  • and to think a little bit differently.

    こう指摘しています

  • Now for me, a question often is,

    「不安は可能性のための可能性と つながっている」

  • why we still embrace this idea of a self-made man on which capitalism relied from its beginning?

    現在の私たちは こうしたリスクを 防ぐことができると考えます

  • Why we think that we are really such masters of our lives

    市場分析はいくらでもあるし

  • that we can rationally make the best ideal choices,

    将来の収益の予測も立ちます

  • that we don’t accept losses and risks?

    市場というのは危険性や偶然性を

  • And for me, it’s very shocking to see sometime very poor people,

    はらんでいるものですが それですら私たちは理性を持って

  • for example, not supporting the idea of the rich being taxed more.

    予測できると思っています

  • Quite often here they still identify with a certain kind of a lottery mentality.

    偶然は時に劇的なことを起こします

  • Okay, maybe they don’t think that they will make it in the future,

    昨年 友人であるシカゴ大学の

  • but maybe they think, my son might become the next Bill Gates.

    バーナード・ハーコートが 偶然という概念について

  • And who would want to tax one’s son?

    学会を催しました

  • Or, a question for me is also, you know why would people who have no health insurance not embrace universal healthcare?

    彼と私は共にパネリストでした

  • Sometimes they don’t embrace it, again identifying with the idea of choice, but they have nothing to choose from.

    論文発表の直前になって

  • Now, Margaret Thatcher famously said,

    お互いの論文の内容を知らないまま

  • that there is nothing like a society.

    真面目に「偶然」に 取り組んでみることにしました

  • Society doesn’t exist.

    私たちは聴衆に伝えました

  • It is only individuals and their families.

    「これからお聞きになるのは

  • Sadly, this ideology still functions very well,

    2つの論文を

  • which is why people who are poor might feel ashamed for their poverty.

    適当に混ぜたものです

  • We might endlessly feel guilty that we are not making the right choices and that’s why we didn’t succeed.

    私たちは相手の論文が どんな内容か知りません」

  • We are anxious that we are not good enough.

    そうやって学会を行いました

  • That’s why we work very hard, long hours at the workplace

    バーナードが最初の段落を読み

  • and equally long hours on remaking ourselves.

    私が最初の段落を読み

  • Now, when we are anxious over choices,

    バーナードが次の段落を読み

  • sometimes we easily give our power of choice away.

    私が次の段落を読む

  • We identify with the guru who tells us what to do, self-help therapists,

    そういう具合で最後まで進めました

  • or we embrace a totalitarian leader who appears to have no doubts about choices, who sort of knows.

    驚いたことに

  • Now, often people ask me,

    聴衆の大多数は

  • What did you learn by studying choice?”

    自分たちが今 聞いた論文が

  • And there is an important message that I did learn.

    ごちゃ混ぜだったとは思いませんでした

  • When thinking about choices, I stopped taking choices too seriously, personally.

    教授という私たちのような

  • First, I realized a lot of choice I make is not rational.

    権威ある立場の者が

  • It’s linked to my unconscious, my guesses of what others are choosing,

    真面目に偶然を捉えるなどと

  • or what is a socially embraced choice.

    聴衆は信じられなかったのです

  • I also embrace the idea that we should go beyond thinking about individual choices,

    聴衆は私たちが共同で 論文を用意していて

  • that it’s very important to rethink social choices,

    デタラメというのは冗談だと思っていました

  • since this ideology of individual choice has pacified us.

    私たちが暮らす現代は情報のあふれる

  • It really prevented us to think about social change.

    ビッグデータの時代です

  • We spend so much time choosing things for ourselves and barely reflect on communal choices we can make.

    人体に関する知識も たっぷりある時代です

  • Now, we should not forget that choice is always linked to change.

    ゲノムも解読しました

  • We can make individual changes, but we can make social changes.

    脳についても 多くのことがわかっています

  • We can choose to have more wolves.

    しかし驚くべきことに 人々はこうした知識に対し

  • We can choose to change our environment to have more bees.

    ますます目をつぶるようになってきています

  • We can choose to have different rating agencies.

    無知と否定が増大しています

  • We can choose to control corporations instead of allowing corporations controlling us.

    現在の経済危機について

  • We have a possibility to make changes.

    私たちが考えているのは こうです

  • Now, I started with a quote from Samuel Johnson,

    ある朝 目覚めたら すべて元どおり

  • who said that when we make choice in life, we shouldn’t forget to live.

    政治的変革も社会的変革も必要なし

  • Finally, you can see I did have a choice to choose one of the three quotes with which I wanted to start my lecture.

    生態上の危機についても

  • I did have a choice, such as nations, as people,

    今は何もしなくていい あるいは―

  • we have choices too to rethink in what kind of society we want to live in the future.

    自分より先に誰かが 行動すると思っています

  • Thank you.

    たとえば福島での大惨事のように

When I was preparing for this talk, I went to search for a couple of quotes that I can share with you.

翻訳: Emi Kamiya 校正: Yuko Yoshida

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B1 中級 日本語 TED 選択 イデオロギー 社会 不安 理性

(【TED】レナータ・サレクル 私たちの不健康な選択への執着(レナータ・サレクル 私たちの不健康な選択への執着) (【TED】Renata Salecl: Our unhealthy obsession with choice (Renata Salecl: Our unhealthy obsession with choice))

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    Go Tutor に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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