Placeholder Image

字幕表 動画を再生する

  • Think about all the things that need to happen

  • for a human settlement to thrive:

  • obtaining food,

  • building shelter,

  • raising children and more.

  • There needs to be a way to divide resources,

  • organize major efforts

  • and distribute labor efficiently.

  • Now imagine having to do this without any sort of planning

  • or higher level communication.

  • Welcome to the ant colony.

  • Ants have some of the most complex social organization

  • in the animal kingdom,

  • living in structured colonies

  • containing different types of members

  • who perform specific roles.

  • But although this may sound similar to some human societies,

  • this organization doesn't arise from any higher level decisions,

  • but is part of a biologically programmed cycle.

  • In many species,

  • all the winged males and winged virgin queens

  • from all the nearby colonies in the population

  • each leave from their different nests

  • and meet at a central place to mate,

  • using pheromones to guide each other to a breeding ground.

  • After mating, the males die off,

  • while females try to establish a new colony.

  • The few that are successful settle down in a suitable spot,

  • lose their wings,

  • and begin laying eggs,

  • selectively fertilizing some using stored sperm they've saved up from mating.

  • Fertilized eggs grow into female workers

  • who care for the queen and her eggs.

  • They will then defend the colony

  • and forage for food,

  • while unfertilized eggs grow into males

  • whose only job is to wait until they are ready to leave the nest

  • and reproduce, beginning the cycle again.

  • So how do worker ants decide what to do and when?

  • Well, they don't really.

  • Although they have no methods of intentional communication,

  • individual ants do interact with one another

  • through touch, sound and chemical signals.

  • These stimuli accomplish many things

  • from serving as an alarm to other ants if one is killed,

  • to signaling when a queen is nearing the end of her reproductive life.

  • But one of the most impressive collective capabilities of an ant colony

  • is to thoroughly and efficiently explore large areas

  • without any predetermined plan.

  • Most species of ants have little or no sense of sight

  • and can only smell things in their vicinity.

  • Combined with their lack of high level coordination,

  • this would seem to make them terrible explorers,

  • but there is an amazingly simple way

  • that ants maximize their searching efficiency;

  • by changing their movement patterns

  • based on individual interactions.

  • When two ants meet,

  • they sense each other by touching antennae.

  • If there are many ants in a small area this will happen more often

  • causing them to respond by moving

  • in more convoluted, random paths in order to search more thoroughly.

  • But in a larger area, with less ants, where such meetings happen less often,

  • they can walk in straight lines to cover more ground.

  • While exploring their environment in this way,

  • an ant may come across any number of things,

  • from threats or enemies, to alternate nesting sites.

  • And some species have another capability known as recruitment.

  • When one of these ants happens to find food,

  • it will return with it, marking its path with a chemical scent.

  • Other ants will then follow this pheromone trail,

  • renewing it each time they manage to find food and return.

  • Once the food in that spot is depleted,

  • the ants stop marking their return.

  • The scent dissipates and ants are no longer attracted to that path.

  • These seemingly crude methods of search and retrieval

  • are, in fact, so useful that they are applied in computer models

  • to obtain optimal solutions from decentralized elements,

  • working randomly and exchanging simple information.

  • This has many theoretical and practical applications,

  • from solving the famous traveling salesman problem,

  • to scheduling computing tasks and optimizing Internet searches,

  • to enabling groups of robots to search a minefield

  • or a burning building collectively, without any central control.

  • But you can observe these fascinatingly simple, yet effective, processes directly

  • through some simple experiments,

  • by allowing ants to enter empty spaces of various sizes

  • and paying attention to their behavior.

  • Ants may not be able to vote, hold meetings or even make any plans,

  • but we humans may still be able to learn something

  • from the way that such simple creatures

  • are able to function so effectively in such complex ways.

Think about all the things that need to happen

字幕と単語

動画の操作 ここで「動画」の調整と「字幕」の表示を設定することができます

B1 中級

TED-ED】アリのコロニーの中へ - デボラ・M・ゴードン (【TED-Ed】Inside the ant colony - Deborah M. Gordon)

  • 8494 705
    Kevin Tan に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
動画の中の単語