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  • I and my colleagues Art Aron and Lucy Brown and others,

    翻訳: Aiko McLean 校正: Takako Sato

  • have put 37 people who are madly in love

    同僚のアート アロンとルーシー ブラウンと共に

  • into a functional MRI brain scanner.

    MRIスキャナで

  • 17 who were happily in love, 15 who had just been dumped,

    熱愛中の37人を検査しました

  • and we're just starting our third experiment:

    17人はラブラブ 15人は振られたばかり

  • studying people who report that they're still in love

    また 3度目の実験を始めたばかりですが

  • after 10 to 25 years of marriage.

    結婚生活を10年から25年経て

  • So, this is the short story of that research.

    今も恋をしている人の研究も行っています

  • In the jungles of Guatemala, in Tikal, stands a temple.

    今日は そのリサーチの話をします

  • It was built by the grandest Sun King,

    グァテマラのジャングル ティカルに寺院があります

  • of the grandest city-state,

    建設したのは 偉大な太陽の王

  • of the grandest civilization of the Americas, the Mayas.

    壮大な国家都市

  • His name was Jasaw Chan K'awiil.

    北南米で最も偉大な文明 マヤの王

  • He stood over six feet tall.

    王の名はハサウ チャン カウィール

  • He lived into his 80s,

    180センチ以上の長身で

  • and he was buried beneath this monument in 720 AD.

    80代まで生き―

  • And Mayan inscriptions proclaim

    紀元720年 この遺跡に葬られました

  • that he was deeply in love with his wife.

    マヤ碑文によると

  • So, he built a temple in her honor, facing his.

    王は妻にベタ惚れで 彼の神殿に面して 妻の神殿を建設

  • And every spring and autumn, exactly at the equinox,

    王は妻にベタ惚れで 彼の神殿に面して 妻の神殿を建設

  • the sun rises behind his temple,

    毎年 ちょうど春分と秋分の日

  • and perfectly bathes her temple with his shadow.

    王の神殿側に日が昇ると

  • And as the sun sets behind her temple in the afternoon,

    彼の影が 妻の神殿を優しく撫で

  • it perfectly bathes his temple with her shadow.

    妻の神殿側に日が沈むと

  • After 1,300 years, these two lovers

    妻の影が 王の神殿を優しく撫でる

  • still touch and kiss from their tomb.

    1300年の時を越えた今も 2人は石碑越しに

  • Around the world, people love.

    抱擁し くちづけを交わしています

  • They sing for love, they dance for love,

    世界中で 人々は恋をし

  • they compose poems and stories about love.

    恋に歌い 恋に踊ります

  • They tell myths and legends about love.

    愛の詩や物語を書き

  • They pine for love, they live for love,

    恋の神話や伝説を語る

  • they kill for love, and they die for love.

    恋に恋焦がれ 恋の為に生きます

  • As Walt Whitman once said,

    人を殺め 死まで選びます

  • he said, "Oh, I would stake all for you."

    ウォルト・ホイットマンの言葉

  • Anthropologists have found evidence of romantic love in 170 societies.

    “君のためなら全てを賭けてもいい”

  • They've never found a society that did not have it.

    人類学者は 170ヶ国にて 恋愛の存在を確認

  • But love isn't always a happy experience.

    どの社会にも 例外なく存在します

  • In one study of college students,

    でも 恋は常に幸せなものではありません

  • they asked a lot of questions about love,

    ある大学生が 研究で

  • but the two that stood out to me the most were,

    恋に関する質問を沢山しました

  • "Have you ever been rejected by somebody who you really loved?"

    その中で印象に残った2つが

  • And the second question was,

    “愛する人に振られた事がありますか”

  • "Have you ever dumped somebody who really loved you?"

    もう1つが

  • And almost 95 percent of both men and women said yes to both.

    “自分を愛する人を振った事がありますか”

  • Almost nobody gets out of love alive.

    ほぼ95%の男女が両方に Yesと答えています

  • So, before I start telling you about the brain,

    つまり 恋はほぼ実らないものだと....

  • I want to read for you

    脳について話す前に

  • what I think is the most powerful love poem on Earth.

    少し朗読します

  • There's other love poems that are, of course, just as good,

    地球上で最もパワフルな愛の詩です

  • but I don't think this one can be surpassed.

    優れた詩は沢山ありますが

  • It was told by an anonymous Kwakiutl Indian of southern Alaska

    勝る詩はないと思います

  • to a missionary in 1896, and here it is.

    南アラスカの クワキウトル族インディアンが

  • I've never had the opportunity to say it before.

    1896年 伝道者に聞かせました

  • "Fire runs through my body with the pain of loving you.

    公の場で初めて読みます

  • Pain runs through my body with the fires of my love for you.

    “炎のような愛の痛み

  • Pain like a boil about to burst with my love for you,

    愛の炎が痛みとなって体中を駆け巡る

  • consumed by fire with my love for you.

    貴方への愛で 心は張り裂け

  • I remember what you said to me.

    貴方への愛で 火傷する

  • I am thinking of your love for me.

    貴方の言葉を覚えてる

  • I am torn by your love for me.

    貴方の愛を思う

  • Pain and more pain --

    貴方の愛が心を裂く

  • where are you going with my love?

    私の愛を連れて 貴方はどこへ

  • I am told you will go from here.

    さらなる痛み

  • I am told you will leave me here.

    貴方が 旅立つと聞いた

  • My body is numb with grief.

    私を置いていくと

  • Remember what I said, my love.

    悲しみで感覚を失う

  • Goodbye, my love, goodbye."

    私の言葉を忘れないで

  • Emily Dickinson once wrote,

    さよなら 愛しい人 さようなら ”

  • "Parting is all we need to know of hell."

    エミリー・ディキンソンの言葉

  • How many people have suffered

    “別れさえ経験すれば 地獄が分かる”

  • in all the millions of years of human evolution?

    人類が進化してきた中で

  • How many people around the world

    どれだけの人が苦しんだでしょう?

  • are dancing with elation at this very minute?

    どれだけの人々が この地球で

  • Romantic love is one of the most powerful sensations on Earth.

    たった今 歓喜に踊っているでしょう?

  • So, several years ago, I decided to look into the brain

    恋愛は 最もパワフルな感覚のひとつ

  • and study this madness.

    そこで数年前 研究を始めました

  • Our first study of people who were happily in love

    脳と恋の狂気についてです

  • has been widely publicized,

    幸せな恋愛の研究は公表済みなので

  • so I'm only going to say a very little about it.

    幸せな恋愛の研究は公表済みなので

  • We found activity in a tiny, little factory near the base of the brain

    詳細は省いてお話します

  • called the ventral tegmental area.

    脳底付近にある 腹側被蓋野と呼ばれる領域で

  • We found activity in some cells called the A10 cells,

    A10細胞群が

  • cells that actually make dopamine, a natural stimulant,

    活発になっていることを発見しました

  • and spray it to many brain regions.

    天然興奮剤 ドーパミンを作る細胞で

  • Indeed, this part, the VTA, is part of the brain's reward system.

    ドーパミンを脳に放出します

  • It's way below your cognitive thinking process.

    腹側被蓋野は脳の報酬系の一部で

  • It's below your emotions.

    認知思考処理のずっと深部

  • It's part of what we call the reptilian core of the brain,

    感情よりも下部にあります

  • associated with wanting, with motivation,

    爬虫類脳と呼ばれる一部で

  • with focus and with craving.

    欲望 やる気 集中力 切望に―

  • In fact, the same brain region where we found activity

    関係する領域です

  • becomes active also when you feel the rush of cocaine.

    コカインでハイになると

  • But romantic love is much more than a cocaine high --

    同じ領域が活発になります

  • at least you come down from cocaine.

    恋愛はコカインのハイ状態を勝ります

  • Romantic love is an obsession. It possesses you.

    コカインだと恍惚感は一時的ですからね

  • You lose your sense of self.

    恋愛は執着で 人を支配します

  • You can't stop thinking about another human being.

    自分を失い

  • Somebody is camping in your head.

    相手の事を考えずにいられない

  • As an eighth-century Japanese poet said,

    頭の中に誰かが居座ってます

  • "My longing had no time when it ceases."

    8世紀 日本の歌人が言いました

  • Wild is love.

    ”我が恋やまめ命死なずは”

  • And the obsession can get worse when you've been rejected.

    恋は狂気

  • So, right now, Lucy Brown and I, the neuroscientist on our project,

    振られると執着心は悪化します

  • are looking at the data of the people

    現在 神経科学者の ルーシー ブラウンと共に

  • who were put into the machine after they had just been dumped.

    振られて間もない人の

  • It was very difficult actually,

    検査結果を 研究しています

  • putting these people in the machine,

    この人達を スキャンにかけるのは

  • because they were in such bad shape.

    大変でした

  • (Laughter)

    大変でした

  • So anyway, we found activity in three brain regions.

    みなさんボロボロですから(笑)

  • We found activity in the brain region,

    とにかく 脳の3領域に

  • in exactly the same brain region

    活動が見られました

  • associated with intense romantic love.

    激しい恋愛と関連のある―

  • What a bad deal.

    脳の領域です

  • You know, when you've been dumped,

    ひどい仕打ちです

  • the one thing you love to do is just forget about this human being,

    失恋したときは

  • and then go on with your life --

    相手のことを忘れて

  • but no, you just love them harder.

    暮らしていきたいもの

  • As the poet Terence, the Roman poet once said,

    なのに いっそう愛してしまう

  • he said, "The less my hope, the hotter my love."

    ローマの詩人 テレンスの言葉

  • And indeed, we now know why.

    “望みが低いほど燃える”

  • Two thousand years later, we can explain this in the brain.

    その理由は解明されました

  • That brain system -- the reward system

    2千年経った今 説明がつきます

  • for wanting, for motivation, for craving, for focus --

    欲望 やる気 切望 集中力などの

  • becomes more active when you can't get what you want.

    脳の報酬系は 手に入らないと

  • In this case, life's greatest prize:

    さらに活動的になるのです

  • an appropriate mating partner.

    この場合 人生最大のプライズとは―

  • We found activity in other brain regions also --

    最適な交配相手です

  • in a brain region associated with calculating gains and losses.

    他の領域でも活動を発見

  • You know, you're lying there, you're looking at the picture,

    損得計算に関連する脳領域です

  • and you're in this machine,

    脳スキャナの中で

  • and you're calculating, you know, what went wrong.

    絵を眺めながら

  • How, you know, what have I lost?

    何が悪かったのか 何を失ったのかと

  • As a matter of fact, Lucy and I have a little joke about this.

    あれこれ計算する

  • It comes from a David Mamet play,

    ルーシーと笑い話をすることがあります

  • and there's two con artists in the play,

    デビット・マメットの演劇の中で

  • and the woman is conning the man,

    2人のえせ芸術家がおり

  • and the man looks at the woman and says,

    女性が一人をたぶらかします

  • "Oh, you're a bad pony, I'm not going to bet on you."

    男は女性に言う

  • And indeed, it's this part of the brain,

    ”お前は悪い子馬だ お前には賭けないね”

  • the core of the nucleus accumbens, actually, that is becoming active

    損得勘定をするとき

  • as you're measuring your gains and losses.

    脳の坐核側と呼ばれる部分が

  • It's also the brain region that becomes active

    活動し始めます

  • when you're willing to take enormous risks

    大きな損得を賭けて

  • for huge gains and huge losses.

    危険を冒すときも

  • Last but not least, we found activity in a brain region

    同じ脳領域が活動します

  • associated with deep attachment to another individual.

    他人への深い愛着と関連する―

  • No wonder people suffer around the world,

    脳の領域にも活動を確認しました

  • and we have so many crimes of passion.

    世界中で人が苦しむのも 不思議でありません

  • When you've been rejected in love,

    情熱からくる犯罪も多いわけです

  • not only are you engulfed with feelings of romantic love,

    失恋すると

  • but you're feeling deep attachment to this individual.

    恋愛感情に苛まれるだけでなく

  • Moreover, this brain circuit for reward is working,

    深い愛着心を感じます

  • and you're feeling intense energy, intense focus,

    脳回路は報酬のために活動し

  • intense motivation and the willingness to risk it all

    強い活力 集中力 動機

  • to win life's greatest prize.

    危険を冒す気力まで込み上げてきます

  • So, what have I learned from this experiment

    人生最大のプライズを得るためです

  • that I would like to tell the world?

    この実験から学んだこと

  • Foremost, I have come to think

    世界に伝えたいことはですね

  • that romantic love is a drive, a basic mating drive.

    まず思いました

  • Not the sex drive -- the sex drive gets you out there,

    恋愛は欲動であり 交配欲望だと

  • looking for a whole range of partners.

    性欲ではない

  • Romantic love enables you to focus your mating energy

    性交相手の標的は広いが

  • on just one at a time, conserve your mating energy,

    恋愛だと 標的は一度に一人

  • and start the mating process with this single individual.

    交配精力を他者に浪費せず

  • I think of all the poetry that I've read about romantic love,

    一人の相手と交配行為を始めます

  • what sums it up best is something that is said by Plato,

    今まで読んだ愛の詩で

  • over 2,000 years ago.

    最もうまく要約してるのが2千年前の

  • He said, "The god of love lives in a state of need.

    プラトンの言葉だと思います

  • It is a need. It is an urge.

    “愛の神は必要性があり存在する

  • It is a homeostatic imbalance.

    要求であり 本能的

  • Like hunger and thirst, it's almost impossible to stamp out."

    恒久性なアンバランスであり

  • I've also come to believe that romantic love is an addiction:

    空腹と口渇のように 根絶は不可能に近い”

  • a perfectly wonderful addiction when it's going well,

    また 恋愛は中毒性を伴うと思います

  • and a perfectly horrible addiction when it's going poorly.

    順調なときは素敵な中毒

  • And indeed, it has all of the characteristics of addiction.

    悪くなると 悪夢のような中毒

  • You focus on the person, you obsessively think about them,

    事実 中毒のあらゆる症状が確認できます

  • you crave them, you distort reality,

    一人に神経を集中し 執拗にその人を思います

  • your willingness to take enormous risks to win this person.

    切望し 現実を歪め

  • And it's got the three main characteristics of addiction:

    獲得には危険をも負う

  • tolerance, you need to see them more, and more, and more;

    中毒の主症状が3つ見られます

  • withdrawals; and last, relapse.

    忍耐- もっと会いたい 会わずにはいられない

  • I've got a girlfriend who's just getting over a terrible love affair.

    離脱 そして 再発

  • It's been about eight months, she's beginning to feel better.

    失恋から立ち直ろうとしてる女友達がいます

  • And she was driving along in her car the other day,

    かれこれ8ヶ月になります

  • and suddenly she heard a song on the car radio

    先日 彼女は車を運転中

  • that reminded her of this man.

    ある歌をラジオで 聴いて

  • And she -- not only did the instant craving come back,

    突然 彼のことを思い出しました

  • but she had to pull over

    彼への切望が戻ってきただけでなく

  • from the side of the road and cry.

    車を路肩に止め

  • So, one thing I would like the medical community,

    泣き崩れずにはいれませんでした

  • and the legal community, and even the college community,

    ですから 医学界や

  • to see if they can understand, that indeed,

    法曹界や 大学の教育界に

  • romantic love is one of the most addictive substances on Earth.

    恋愛が極めて中毒的な物質だと―

  • I would also like to tell the world that animals love.

    理解してほしい

  • There's not an animal on this planet

    また 動物にだって愛情はあるのです

  • that will copulate with anything that comes along.

    地球上の動物で

  • Too old, too young, too scruffy, too stupid, and they won't do it.

    見境なく交配を行う種はいません

  • Unless you're stuck in a laboratory cage --

    相手に魅力を感じなければ 交尾はしません

  • and you know, if you spend your entire life in a little box,

    実験室に隔離されるなら話は別です

  • you're not going to be as picky about who you have sex with --

    仮に 窮屈な檻の中で一生過ごせば

  • but I've looked in a hundred species,

    それほど性交相手を選り好みしないでしょう

  • and everywhere in the wild, animals have favorites.

    百種以上の生物を観察しましたが

  • As a matter of fact ethologists know this.

    どの動物にも好みがあります

  • There are over eight words for what they call "animal favoritism:"

    動物行動学者は知っています

  • selective proceptivity, mate choice, female choice, sexual choice.

    “動物の偏愛”には 8項目以上の趣向があり

  • And indeed, there are now three academic articles

    求愛相手趣向や交尾相手選択 雌選択や性選択

  • in which they've looked at this attraction,

    事実 この引力に注目した―

  • which may only last for a second,

    3つの学術論があります

  • but it's a definite attraction,

    引力は数秒で消えますが 確実に

  • and either this same brain region, this reward system,

    恋の引力です

  • or the chemicals of that reward system are involved.

    恐らく 報酬系脳領域に関係するか―

  • In fact, I think animal attraction can be instant --

    報酬系物質に関わるのでしょう

  • you can see an elephant instantly go for another elephant.

    動物の引力は瞬間的だと思います

  • And I think that this is really the origin

    象が一瞬で別の象に求愛する例もある

  • of what you and I call "love at first sight."

    これが まさに

  • People have often asked me whether

    “一目惚れ”の原型だと思うのです

  • what I know about love has spoiled it for me.

    恋愛の研究をしていて

  • And I just simply say, "Hardly."

    私生活でマイナスがあったかと よく聞かれます

  • You can know every single ingredient in a piece of chocolate cake,

    ないと答えます

  • and then when you sit down and eat that cake,

    チョコレートケーキの材料は全部分かります

  • you can still feel that joy.

    それでも 座って食べてみると

  • And certainly, I make all the same mistakes

    ケーキはやっぱり美味しいものです

  • that everybody else does too,

    それに 私も他の人と

  • but it's really deepened my understanding

    同じように失敗をします

  • and compassion, really, for all human life.

    ただ 人に対する理解と

  • As a matter of fact, in New York, I often catch myself

    思いやりが深まりました

  • looking in baby carriages and feeling a little sorry for the tot.

    脳システムの奮闘を考えると

  • And in fact, sometimes I feel a little sorry

    ベビーカーの中の幼児を眺め

  • for the chicken on my dinner plate,

    ときどき 同情を感じます

  • when I think of how intense this brain system is.

    夕食のチキンが 不憫に思えたりもします

  • Our newest experiment has been hatched

    夕食のチキンが 不憫に思えたりもします

  • by my colleague, Art Aron --

    同僚のアート・アーロンのアイデアで始まった―

  • putting people who are reporting that they are still in love,

    新しい実験も進行中です