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  • Everything I do, and everything I do professionally --

    翻訳: Kazunori Akashi 校正: Yoshino Ueda

  • my life -- has been shaped

    仕事も含めて 私が今していること ―

  • by seven years of work as a young man in Africa.

    つまり私の人生の 土台になっているのは

  • From 1971 to 1977 --

    若い頃に7年間 アフリカで働いた経験です

  • I look young, but I'm not — (Laughter) --

    1971年から77年にかけて ―

  • I worked in Zambia, Kenya, Ivory Coast, Algeria, Somalia,

    実は 見かけほど若くないんです ―(笑)

  • in projects of technical cooperation with African countries.

    ザンビア ケニア コートジボワール アルジェリア ソマリアといった

  • I worked for an Italian NGO,

    アフリカ各国で 技術支援の活動をしていました

  • and every single project that we set up in Africa


  • failed.

    活動していましたが アフリカで立ち上げたプロジェクトは

  • And I was distraught.


  • I thought, age 21, that we Italians were good people


  • and we were doing good work in Africa.

    当時21才だった私は 自分達イタリア人は善良だし

  • Instead, everything we touched we killed.


  • Our first project, the one that has inspired my first book,

    ところが やることなすこと 全てがダメでした

  • "Ripples from the Zambezi,"

    最初のプロジェクトは 私の初めての著書 ―

  • was a project where we Italians

    『ザンベジ川のさざ波』で 書いたように

  • decided to teach Zambian people how to grow food.


  • So we arrived there with Italian seeds in southern Zambia

    ザンビアの人々に食糧生産の 技術を指導するプロジェクトでした

  • in this absolutely magnificent valley

    イタリア産のタネを持って ザンビア南部に入りました

  • going down to the Zambezi River,


  • and we taught the local people how to grow Italian tomatoes


  • and zucchini and ...

    地元の人に教えたのは イタリアン・トマトや

  • And of course the local people had absolutely no interest


  • in doing that, so we paid them to come and work,

    当然 誰も興味をもちません

  • and sometimes they would show up. (Laughter)

    だから来てもらうために お金を渡したら

  • And we were amazed that the local people,

    時々 人が来るようになりました (笑)

  • in such a fertile valley, would not have any agriculture.

    驚いたことに 彼らは

  • But instead of asking them how come they were not

    肥沃な大地があるのに 農業をしません

  • growing anything, we simply said, "Thank God we're here." (Laughter)

    でも私達は 農業をしない理由も聞かず

  • "Just in the nick of time to save the Zambian people from starvation."

    「来てよかった」と 素直に喜んだんです (笑)

  • And of course, everything in Africa grew beautifully.

    「国民が飢える前に 助けに来られた」と

  • We had these magnificent tomatoes. In Italy, a tomato

    アフリカでは 何でも見事に育ちました

  • would grow to this size. In Zambia, to this size.

    大きなトマトも実りました イタリアでは

  • And we could not believe, and we were telling the Zambians,

    せいぜいこの大きさですが ザンビアではとても大きくなります

  • "Look how easy agriculture is."

    信じられなかったけれど ザンビアの人には

  • When the tomatoes were nice and ripe and red,

    「農業なんて簡単でしょう」と 言いました

  • overnight, some 200 hippos came out from the river

    トマトが熟して 真っ赤になった頃に

  • and they ate everything. (Laughter)

    夜中 200頭の カバが河から現れて

  • And we said to the Zambians, "My God, the hippos!"

    全部 食べてしまいました (笑)

  • And the Zambians said, "Yes, that's why we have no agriculture here." (Laughter)

    「なんてことだ カバが!」と言っていたら

  • "Why didn't you tell us?" "You never asked."

    彼らは答えて 「だから 農業はしないのさ」(笑)

  • I thought it was only us Italians blundering around Africa,

    なぜ教えてくれない と聞くと 「聞かないからさ」という答え

  • but then I saw what the Americans were doing,

    最初 失敗しているのは 私達だけかと思っていました

  • what the English were doing, what the French were doing,


  • and after seeing what they were doing,


  • I became quite proud of our project in Zambia.


  • Because, you see, at least we fed the hippos.

    自分達のザンビアでの 活動を自慢したくなりました

  • You should see the rubbish — (Applause) --

    だって 少なくとも カバには食料を与えたんですから

  • You should see the rubbish that we have bestowed

    私達がこれまで ― (拍手)

  • on unsuspecting African people.

    私達がこれまで 純真なアフリカの人々に

  • You want to read the book,


  • read "Dead Aid," by Dambisa Moyo,


  • Zambian woman economist.

    ザンビアの女性エコノミスト ダンビサ・モヨの

  • The book was published in 2009.

    『援助じゃアフリカは発展しない』が お勧めです

  • We Western donor countries have given the African continent


  • two trillion American dollars in the last 50 years.

    西洋諸国は この50年間 アフリカ大陸向けに

  • I'm not going to tell you the damage that that money has done.


  • Just go and read her book.

    この資金が与えた損害は 今はお話しません

  • Read it from an African woman, the damage that we have done.


  • We Western people are imperialist, colonialist missionaries,

    アフリカの女性から 私達が与えた損害を学ぶのです

  • and there are only two ways we deal with people:

    西洋人は 帝国主義者で 植民地主義者で 宣教師です

  • We either patronize them, or we are paternalistic.

    そんな我々が知る 人との接し方は2種類です

  • The two words come from the Latin root "pater,"

    庇護を与えるか 父親のように振る舞うか です

  • which means "father."

    どちらも ラテン語の "pater" 「父」という単語を

  • But they mean two different things.


  • Paternalistic, I treat anybody from a different culture

    でも2つの言葉の 意味はかなり違います

  • as if they were my children. "I love you so much."

    "paternalistic"が表すのは 異なる文化圏の人々を

  • Patronizing, I treat everybody from another culture

    まるで自分の子のように扱う態度です 子どもを愛する態度です

  • as if they were my servants.

    "patronizing"が表すのは 異なる文化圏の人々を

  • That's why the white people in Africa are called "bwana," boss.


  • I was given a slap in the face reading a book,

    白人がアフリカでは"bwana" 「ボス」と呼ばれる理由が これです

  • "Small is Beautiful," written by Schumacher, who said,

    私は『スモール イズ ビューティフル』を読んで

  • above all in economic development, if people

    平手打ちされたような気がしました 著者のシューマッハーは

  • do not wish to be helped, leave them alone.


  • This should be the first principle of aid.

    人々が支援を必要としないなら 放っておくべきだと言います

  • The first principle of aid is respect.


  • This morning, the gentleman who opened this conference


  • lay a stick on the floor, and said,


  • "Can we -- can you imagine a city

    私達に 挑むように 言っていたではありませんか

  • that is not neocolonial?"

    「ネオコロニアル様式 ではない街を

  • I decided when I was 27 years old


  • to only respond to people,

    27才の時に 自分から行動せず

  • and I invented a system called Enterprise Facilitation,


  • where you never initiate anything,

    「事業促進」という 仕組みを作りました

  • you never motivate anybody, but you become a servant

    この仕組みでは 自分から行動を起こしません

  • of the local passion, the servant of local people

    人に何かをやらせる代わりに 地元の有志や

  • who have a dream to become a better person.

    よりよい人間に なりたいと考える ―

  • So what you do -- you shut up.

    人々のための 奉仕者として働きます

  • You never arrive in a community with any ideas,

    だから大事なのは 黙っていることです

  • and you sit with the local people.

    アイデアを与えるために 出かけて行くのではなく

  • We don't work from offices.


  • We meet at the cafe. We meet at the pub.


  • We have zero infrastructure.


  • And what we do, we become friends,


  • and we find out what that person wants to do.


  • The most important thing is passion.


  • You can give somebody an idea.


  • If that person doesn't want to do it,


  • what are you going to do?


  • The passion that the person has for her own growth


  • is the most important thing.

    成長への情熱が 女性にとって

  • The passion that that man has for his own personal growth

    一番 大事です

  • is the most important thing.

    成長への情熱は 男性にも

  • And then we help them to go and find the knowledge,

    一番 大事です

  • because nobody in the world can succeed alone.

    その後 必要な知識を 得る手助けをします

  • The person with the idea may not have the knowledge,

    誰しも1人では 成功できないからです

  • but the knowledge is available.

    アイデアのある人が 必要な知識を持つわけではなく

  • So years and years ago, I had this idea:


  • Why don't we, for once, instead of arriving in the community

    だから こう考えるようになりました

  • to tell people what to do, why don't, for once,

    「コミュニティーに入って みんなに指示する代わりに

  • listen to them? But not in community meetings.


  • Let me tell you a secret.

    でも公の集まりでは だめです

  • There is a problem with community meetings.


  • Entrepreneurs never come,

    コミュニティーの集会には 欠点があります

  • and they never tell you, in a public meeting,


  • what they want to do with their own money,

    それに みんなが集まる集会では

  • what opportunity they have identified.

    自分のお金を使って やろうとしていることや

  • So planning has this blind spot.

    自分が見つけたチャンスを 教えてくれるわけがない

  • The smartest people in your community you don't even know,


  • because they don't come to your public meetings.

    その土地の優れた人材を 見つけられないのです

  • What we do, we work one-on-one,


  • and to work one-on-one, you have to create

    そこで1人ずつ あたっていくことにしました

  • a social infrastructure that doesn't exist.


  • You have to create a new profession.

    社会的インフラを 一から作る必要があります

  • The profession is the family doctor of enterprise,


  • the family doctor of business, who sits with you

    その仕事は 企業やビジネス向けの ファミリー・ドクターのようなもので

  • in your house, at your kitchen table, at the cafe,


  • and helps you find the resources to transform your passion


  • into a way to make a living.

    情熱を 生活の糧へと替えるための

  • I started this as a tryout in Esperance, in Western Australia.

    経営資源を探す 手伝いをします

  • I was a doing a Ph.D. at the time,

    西オーストラリア州 エスぺランスで試しました

  • trying to go away from this patronizing bullshit

    その頃 私は博士号に取り組みながら

  • that we arrive and tell you what to do.

    地元の人を守るために 指示してやろうという態度を

  • And so what I did in Esperance that first year


  • was to just walk the streets, and in three days


  • I had my first client, and I helped this first guy

    街を歩き回りました 3日目に最初の依頼がありました

  • who was smoking fish from a garage, was a Maori guy,

    その人はガレージで 魚の燻製を作っている

  • and I helped him to sell to the restaurant in Perth,


  • to get organized, and then the fishermen came to me to say,

    パースのレストランへの販売と 組織作りを手伝いました

  • "You the guy who helped Maori? Can you help us?"


  • And I helped these five fishermen to work together

    「マオリを手伝った人かい? 俺達も助けてくれないか」

  • and get this beautiful tuna not to the cannery in Albany

    だから 私は5人の漁師と協力して

  • for 60 cents a kilo, but we found a way

    見事なマグロを 1キロ わずか60セントで

  • to take the fish for sushi to Japan for 15 dollars a kilo,

    アルバニーの缶詰工場に 売るのではなく

  • and the farmers came to talk to me, said,

    1キロ15ドルで 寿司ネタ用に 日本に売る方法を見つけました

  • "Hey, you helped them. Can you help us?"


  • In a year, I had 27 projects going on,


  • and the government came to see me to say,

    1年で27件のプロジェクトを 立ち上げました

  • "How can you do that?


  • How can you do — ?" And I said, "I do something very, very, very difficult.


  • I shut up, and listen to them." (Laughter)

    だから 私は答えました 「とても難しいことですが

  • So — (Applause) —

    黙って話を聞くんです」 (笑)

  • So the government says, "Do it again." (Laughter)


  • We've done it in 300 communities around the world.

    そうしたら役人は またやれと言うんです (笑)

  • We have helped to start 40,000 businesses.

    私達は世界中 300か所で実践し

  • There is a new generation of entrepreneurs


  • who are dying of solitude.


  • Peter Drucker, one of the greatest management consultants in history,

    孤立が原因で 挫折していきます

  • died age 96, a few years ago.

    史上最高の経営コンサルタントの 1人 ピーター・ドラッカーが

  • Peter Drucker was a professor of philosophy


  • before becoming involved in business,

    彼はビジネスに関わる以前は 哲学の教授でした

  • and this is what Peter Drucker says:

    彼はビジネスに関わる以前は 哲学の教授でした

  • "Planning is actually incompatible


  • with an entrepreneurial society and economy."


  • Planning is the kiss of death of entrepreneurship.

    起業社会や起業経済とは 相容れない」

  • So now you're rebuilding Christchurch

    計画は 起業家にとって 致命的です

  • without knowing what the smartest people in Christchurch

    クライストチャーチは 現在 復興中ですが

  • want to do with their own money and their own energy.

    才能あふれる人たちが 自分の金と精力を注いで

  • You have to learn how to get these people

    やろうとしていることが わかっていません

  • to come and talk to you.


  • You have to offer them confidentiality, privacy,

    自分から話しだす方法を 学ぶ必要があります

  • you have to be fantastic at helping them,


  • and then they will come, and they will come in droves.

    手助けの名人に ならなければいけません

  • In a community of 10,000 people, we get 200 clients.

    そうすれば みんな列をなしてやって来ます

  • Can you imagine a community of 400,000 people,


  • the intelligence and the passion?


  • Which presentation have you applauded the most this morning?

    相当の知性と情熱を 秘めているはず

  • Local, passionate people. That's who you have applauded.

    午前のプレゼンでは どこで一番 拍手をしましたか?

  • So what I'm saying is that


  • entrepreneurship is where it's at.


  • We are at the end of the first industrial revolution --


  • nonrenewable fossil fuels, manufacturing --

    今 産業革命の 第一波が終わろうとしています

  • and all of a sudden, we have systems which are not sustainable.


  • The internal combustion engine is not sustainable.


  • Freon way of maintaining things is not sustainable.


  • What we have to look at is at how we


  • feed, cure, educate, transport, communicate


  • for seven billion people in a sustainable way.

    食料 医療 教育 交通 コミュニケーション手段を

  • The technologies do not exist to do that.

    持続可能な形で 地球上の70億人にどう与えるかです

  • Who is going to invent the technology

    これを実現するテクノロジーは まだ存在しません

  • for the green revolution? Universities? Forget about it!

    では 誰が「グリーン革命」に向けた

  • Government? Forget about it!

    技術を開発するのでしょう? 大学? あてになりません

  • It will be entrepreneurs, and they're doing it now.

    政府? それも無理でしょう

  • There's a lovely story that I read in a futurist magazine

    答えは起業家です しかも 彼らはもう始めています

  • many, many years ago.

    以前 未来がテーマの雑誌で

  • There was a group of experts who were invited


  • to discuss the future of the city of New York in 1860.

    1860年に ニューヨークの

  • And in 1860, this group of people came together,

    未来について議論するため 専門家が招集されました

  • and they all speculated about what would happen


  • to the city of New York in 100 years,


  • and the conclusion was unanimous:


  • The city of New York would not exist in 100 years.


  • Why? Because they looked at the curve and said,

    100年後ニューヨークは 存在しないというものでした

  • if the population keeps growing at this rate,

    彼らはグラフを見て こう結論づけたのです

  • to move the population of New York around,


  • they would have needed six million horses,


  • and the manure created by six million horses


  • would be impossible to deal with.


  • They were already drowning in manure. (Laughter)


  • So 1860, they are seeing this dirty technology

    街は すでに馬の フンだらけだったのです (笑)

  • that is going to choke the life out of New York.

    1860年に専門家が注目したのは 移動のための汚れた技術でした

  • So what happens? In 40 years' time, in the year 1900,

    ニューヨークは そのせいで窒息寸前だったのです

  • in the United States of America, there were 1,001

    その後どうなったか? 40年後の1900年には

  • car manufacturing companies -- 1,001.

    アメリカに 1,001か所の

  • The idea of finding a different technology

    自動車製造会社が出来ていました 1,001か所です

  • had absolutely taken over,

    別の移動の技術を 探るというアイデアが

  • and there were tiny, tiny little factories in backwaters.


  • Dearborn, Michigan. Henry Ford.

    だから辺鄙な場所に 小さな工場がたくさんあったのです

  • However, there is a secret to work with entrepreneurs.

    例えばミシガン州ディアボーンには ヘンリー・フォードがいました

  • First, you have to offer them confidentiality.

    さて 起業家と仕事をするには 秘訣があります

  • Otherwise they don't come and talk to you.

    まず秘密を守ることを 約束する必要があります

  • Then you have to offer them absolute, dedicated,


  • passionate service to them.


  • And then you have to tell them the truth about entrepreneurship.


  • The smallest company, the biggest company,

    さらに起業の実態を 教える必要があります

  • has to be capable of doing three things beautifully:


  • The product that you want to sell has to be fantastic,

    次の3つを 完璧にできなければなりません

  • you have to have fantastic marketing,


  • and you have to have tremendous financial management.


  • Guess what?


  • We have never met a single human being

    ただ そうは言っても

  • in the world who can make it, sell it and look after the money.


  • It doesn't exist.

    同時にこなせる人など 見たことがありません

  • This person has never been born.


  • We've done the research, and we have looked


  • at the 100 iconic companies of the world --

    私達は世界100の大企業 ―