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  • Helvetica or Arial?

  • Cambria or Calibri?

  • With hundreds and hundreds of fonts at our fingertips today,

  • selecting one can feel pretty arbitrary,

  • but there was a time when choosing a particular typeface

  • was considered a bold political act.

  • This was especially true in a short lived German school that, a century ago,

  • shaped everything we now think of as modern design.

  • I'm Michael Tabb.

  • This is Quartz.

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  • This is the Bauhaus.

  • This building was briefly home to one of the 20th century's most influential centers for design.

  • The ideas born in these classrooms have spread across the world,

  • influencing everything from the design of home furniture to buildings to cities.

  • The story of the Bauhaus is a lesson in how easily the political can be co-opted by the commercial.

  • But even on its hundredth anniversary, Bauhaus still has more to teach us,

  • because it was never just about the curvy forms and cool colors.

  • Its creators wanted to show how design can serve people.

  • The school wanted really to push in the way they educated the students

  • that design and art is meaningful for societies.

  • That, you know, with the things you make, you might bring also the capacity to transform a society.

  • More specifically, they wanted to transform German society after World War I left the country in ruins.

  • Nationalist groups aligned to form what would become the Nazi Party.

  • Their right-wing ideology called for a return to traditional German values.

  • And their messaging carried a typeface.

  • Fraktur: the true German font, based on gothic script

  • that had become synonymous with the German national identity for 800 years.

  • Fraktur became a recognizable part of Nazi branding, at least for a while.

  • On the opposite end of the political spectrum, avant-garde artists and designers saw the chaos

  • as a chance to rethink their role completely.

  • Fresh from the horrors of the war, they wanted to turn over a new leaf,

  • to start with the basics.

  • They came home being surrounded by millions of handicapped and wounded people.

  • And by the experience that every knowledge that they had before war started is now devalued.

  • So these artists came together and had the conviction that, "We have to start from scratch."

  • With a utopian vision, the architect Walter Gropius created a new school in Weimar called the Bauhaus.

  • Here, students were encouraged to experiment across disciplines:

  • Painting, carpentry, weaving, printmaking, dance, lettering.

  • They created a radical new kind of typography.

  • But the Bauhaus didn't last long.

  • The Nazis believed that the Bauhaus' rejection of tradition was fundamentally un-German.

  • They hated their modern products, including the new typography.

  • The Bauhaus' play with typography is not simply innocent wordplay.

  • It is politically charged.

  • The Germans are probably the only users of the Roman alphabet who had given typescript a nationalist sense.

  • To refuse it and redesign the alphabet completely in the opposite direction

  • is to free it of these national associations.

  • The Nazis closed the Dessau school for its degenerate art in 1932,

  • then shut their Berlin outpost a year later.

  • Bauhausers fled Germany and spread their ideas around the world.

  • This was brought from Dessau to Berlin and then ultimately was shipped over here.

  • Founder Walter Gropius ended up in Massachusetts at Harvard University.

  • As chair of the architecture department, he brought the legacy of Bauhaus to mythic status.

  • He was kind of reforming architectural education, but really his role was almost as a cultural ambassador,

  • promoting international modernist architecture in the United States but also the legacy of the Bauhaus.

  • The Bauhaus dogma took hold in schools across the world.

  • Students and scholars loved it, but something else started to happen.

  • Corporations loved it too.

  • As democracy and capitalism went global following World War II,

  • so did Bauhaus design.

  • As corporations began to sell across borders, the advertising in the new typography was as effective

  • in Switzerland as it was in California as it was in South Africa.

  • The new typographers of the 20s were aiming to make their graphic design international

  • to lead to a kind of universal socialism, the irony being that what became international

  • was capitalism.

  • A hundred years later, you can spot the Bauhaus influence in advertisements everywhere.

  • And thanks to many Bauhaus exhibitions and books and now the internet,

  • designs from the school itself keep finding new life, including their experiments in lettering.

  • They've had half a million downloads so far.

  • They come from anywhere, so suddenly somebody takes us into a different environment.

  • Erik Spiekermann is a Berlin-based designer who's worked with students to revive

  • Bauhaus type experiments.

  • They produced fonts based on century-old drawings that are now licensed by Adobe.

  • We are encouraging people to take liberties, I say,

  • "Look, these weren't typefaces, they were sketches, they were very crude at times."

  • More often than not, I get a lot of joy out of people using my typefaces in a way I would have never done.

  • For Spiekermann and many others, this is the genius of the Bauhaus.

  • It's meant to be interpreted and reinterpreted. And that's because Bauhaus was not born as a style.

  • It was a revolutionary idea.

  • When the public began to talk about Bauhaus style, people at the Bauhaus were extremely upset,

  • because they like to think that what they were creating was almost the necessity of modernity

  • and was not at all anything so frivolous as style, which for them meant fashion.

  • On the school's hundredth anniversary, Bauhaus champions are trying to exhume its true legacy.

  • It's not the products or even the fonts,

  • but the philosophy that good design can be a source of renewal and hope.

Helvetica or Arial?

字幕と単語

動画の操作 ここで「動画」の調整と「字幕」の表示を設定することができます

B1 中級

バウハウスのデザインはどこにでもありますが、そのルーツは政治的なものです。 (Bauhaus design is everywhere, but its roots are political)

  • 7 0
    Nai Ching Hsiao に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
動画の中の単語