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  • Hi.

  • Welcome to engVid.

  • I'm Adam.

  • In today's video we're going to look at the "Compound Subject".

  • So this is a grammar lesson, and it doesn't matter if you're a beginner or advanced, it's

  • very important to understand this because it's very easy to make mistakes, especially

  • in writing.

  • So, we're going to start by looking at the subject.

  • What is a subject?

  • Just to refresh our memories.

  • The subject is the thing in the sentence or in the clause that is going to do the action

  • or is going to be in the situation of the "be" verb, if it's not an action verb.

  • Right?

  • So...

  • And we always have to make sure that our subject and our verb agree.

  • They must agree, especially in terms of number.

  • If you have a singular subject, you must have a singular verb.

  • Right?

  • So let's look at this example: "The doctor is off this week."

  • Right?

  • So when we're talking about the doctor, there's one doctor, his or her situation is that he

  • or she is off this week.

  • They're on vacation.

  • Right?

  • So we have a singular verb.

  • Now, we're going to look at compounds in terms of taking two pieces and making one subject

  • out of this...

  • Out of the two individual pieces.

  • We're going to look at "and" and we're going to look at "or", "either", "or", "neither",

  • "nor".

  • Okay?

  • But we're going to look at "or" after, we're going to start with "and".

  • First thing you need to remember about "and", it works like a plus sign.

  • One plus one equals two.

  • So, when you take two individual subjects and you join them together, you're creating

  • a two-or-more situation, or a two-or-more subject, therefore you have a plural subject.

  • Right?

  • So: "The doctor and the nurse are off", so plural, whereas you had singular.

  • Now, it doesn't matter if you have plural pieces.

  • "The doctor and the nurse are", "The doctors and the nurse are", "The doctors and the nurses

  • are", any combination because you're joining them into a group and now they are plural

  • and you have a matching verb.

  • Now, it's very important to remember that we're talking about compounds and we're using

  • a compound conjunction, but if you use: "The doctors"...

  • Well, let's just say "doctor", no "s".

  • "The doctor as well as the nurses are off this week", would this be correct?

  • No, it would not because you're not making a compound.

  • This is an extra.

  • Okay?

  • "The doctor", but if you had: "The doctors as well as the nurses are off this week",

  • that is correct because then you would still have a plural to a plural.

  • Singular, with "as well as", singular.

  • Plural with "as well as", plural.

  • Now: "as well as", "along with", "together with", "accompanied by", all of these expressions

  • are not compound conjunctions.

  • So we only have a compound subject when we have a compound conjunction joining them.

  • Okay?

  • But there are situations where you're going to have a compound, but you still have a singular

  • subject.

  • "Spaghetti and meatballs is delicious", not "are".

  • Why is this singular?

  • Because this is a grouped thing, they always go together.

  • Spaghetti and meatballs is one idea.

  • Even though you're joining them, they are basically one item.

  • "Peanut butter and jelly is my favourite snack", or "Peanut butter and jelly sandwiches are

  • my favourite snack", but then you're using it as an adjective.

  • If it's one piece, if it's a collective, then it's singular.

  • If it's two separate items, then you're making a compound and then you have a plural.

  • Look at this one: "The founder and CEO of the company is ready to sell", "The founder

  • and CEO of the company are ready to sell".

  • Now, which of these is correct?

  • Well, both can be correct.

  • You can have one person who is both the founder of the company and the CEO of the company.

  • So if this and this refer to the same person, then it's a singular subject and you're using "is".

  • If the founder and the CEO are two different people, then you're creating a compound, you

  • have a plural, and then you have "are" as correct.

  • So it's very important to understand what the two pieces on either side of "and" are

  • doing.

  • Are they two separate things, or are they one combined thing?

  • And then you'll know which...

  • If it's a plural or a singular subject.

  • I'm going to give you some more examples after so you'll get an idea, but first let's look at "or".

  • Okay, let's look at the compound conjunction: "or".

  • "Or", "nor".

  • Okay?

  • "Neither Tom nor his sister likes to cook", "Neither Tom nor his sisters like to cook".

  • Okay?

  • Basically what you have to remember about "or" or "nor" is that the verb will agree

  • with the last part of the compound.

  • So, if the second part is singular, the verb will match singular.

  • If the second noun is plural, the verb will match plural.

  • So: "sisters like", "sister likes", same with "or".

  • So here's a situation...

  • Oh, I forgot an "r" here.

  • "Either Jill or Kevin needs to be let go."

  • So, I'm a company, I need to make some cuts in the budget, I need to fire one of these

  • people because they're too expensive.

  • Their salary is too high.

  • So: "Either Jill or Kevin needs to be let go."

  • Singular or singular, "needs".

  • "Either Jill or the marketing team needs to go."

  • Now, "team" is a singular.

  • Although there's a lot of...

  • There are a lot of people in the team, the team, the whole collective needs to be let

  • go because they...

  • All of them make as much money as she does.

  • "Either Jill or three junior managers need to be let go", so now I have a plural here,

  • and therefore I have a plural verb to agree with it.

  • So always go with the last or the second noun in the compound subjects when you have "or"

  • or "nor".

  • "And", as soon as you're joining two separate things, you have a plural.

  • "Or" depends on the second noun of the compound.

  • Okay?

  • You're going to understand this a little bit more with some more examples, so let's get

  • to those.

  • Okay, I want to mention a few other things about the compound subjects before we go,

  • and I'm going to look at some more examples.

  • First of all: "Bill and I are going to see a movie."

  • Bill's one person, I'm another, together we are two.

  • Now, if you're not sure about the compound, if you're not sure if it's separate things

  • or if it's one thing, try to replace it with a pronoun.

  • So if I say: "Bill and I", I can replace this with "we".

  • So as soon as you have the "we" pronoun you understand you need the "are", not the "is".

  • So always try to replace your compound with a pronoun.

  • If you can't, it means it's probably one thing.

  • Right?

  • It's probably "it".

  • So I'm going to look at another example.

  • Now: "I and Bill are going to see a movie."

  • Technically this is correct, but people don't usually put the "I" first, they put the "Bill" first.

  • "Bill and I are going to see", and you'll rarely hear: "I and Bill".

  • Why?

  • I'm not exactly sure.

  • They're both correct, but common usage is to put the "I" second.

  • On the other hand: "Bill and she are going to see a movie", "She and Bill are going to

  • see a movie".

  • More common: "She" first", "Bill" second.

  • But, again, both are correct, you can use either one at your leisure.

  • "I" generally second in most cases.

  • Now, let's look at this sentence: "Heather's mother-in-law and dad are spending time together."

  • Okay?

  • "Heather's mother-in-law", one person, "dad", second person, together they make two, they

  • are spending.

  • Now: "Heather's mother-in-law and dad", you must understand that "dad" is Heather's dad,

  • not the mother-in-law's dad.

  • If I said: "Heather's mother-in-law and her dad", then it becomes a little bit confusing,

  • because whose dad?

  • Because there are two women here.

  • Right?

  • If ever you are not sure when you're putting the two items of a subject together, rearrange

  • it to make it more clear.

  • "Heather's dad and mother-in-law are going".

  • It's very clear that the dad is Heather's, not the mother-in-law's.

  • Okay?

  • Just to keep that in mind in terms of positioning the compounds.

  • "Winning and losing is a mindset."

  • Winning and losing are one thing.

  • When you're playing sports or whatever, winning and losing is part of the game.

  • They're not two separate things.

  • But wins or losses, these are countable things.

  • You can actually count wins, you can count losses, therefore they are two separate things.

  • So sometimes the connections are not very clear.

  • If they're not very clear, change the sentence around.

  • Right?

  • "It is a mindset whether you win or lose."

  • Right?

  • And then it's a whole different sentence, there's no confusion, and it's one thing.

  • "Mindset" is the subject, instead of the other two.

  • Here it's very clear, so you can leave it alone: "Wins or losses do not", not "does

  • not" because I have plural, plural, and a second one is plural.

  • "10 successes or 1 failure amount to the same thing".

  • "1 failure"-oh, sorry, my mistake-"amounts to the same thing", because you have the second

  • one is a singular.

  • "1 failure or 10 successes amount to the same thing."

  • Okay?

  • In my mind I wrote it the other way around.

  • So, second one is singular, singular; second one is plural, plural.

  • Okay?

  • Now, keep in mind sometimes you have collective nouns as subjects.

  • Don't confuse collective nouns, like: "the police", "the staff", "the team", that's a

  • different thing from a compound noun.

  • There is a video about collective nouns, you can look in the description box of this video

  • and you will find a link to it.

  • Make sure you separate the two things, and you'll understand how those work, and how

  • compound subjects work, and how to agree with the verb in any situation.

  • If you have any questions, please go to www.engvid.com, you can ask me there in the forum.

  • There's also a quiz, you can practice your understanding of compound subjects.

  • Don't forget to subscribe to my YouTube channel, and I'll see you again soon. Bye-bye.

Hi.

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B1 中級

英文法:複合主語と動詞の一致 (English Grammar: Compound Subjects & Verb Agreement)

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    Summer に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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