Placeholder Image

字幕表 動画を再生する

  • Today, you're studying fast English by looking at the reductions , the linking, the stress, patterns,

  • that native speakers do when speaking American English.

  • We're using the scene Book Smart.

  • When you study American English this way, and not the way you learned it in school, or

  • maybe the way you learned it from a book,

  • your listening comprehension and your ability to sound natural speaking English

  • is going to improve dramatically.

  • We're doing an in-depth analysis, studying the rhythmic contrast that gives American English its character.

  • And we're going to do an audio training section at the end

  • so that you can fully understand and start building that habit of speaking natural English.

  • We don't want them to feel insecure.

  • We're doing this all summer. We started in June, and we're going through August.

  • Stick with me every Tuesday. They're all great scenes and there's going to be so much to learn

  • that can transform the way you understand and speak English.

  • And as always, if you like this video or you learned something , please like and subscribe with notifications.

  • You're going to watch the clip, then we're going to do a full pronunciation analysis together.

  • This is going to help so much with your listening comprehension

  • when it comes to watching English movies in TV.

  • But there's going to be a training section.

  • You're going to take what you've just learned and practice repeating it, doing a reduction, flapping a T,

  • just like you learned in the analysis.

  • Okay here's the scene.

  • Our class's official policy is to not discuss where anyone is attending next year.

  • We don't want them to feel insecure.

  • Very thoughtful.

  • Anyway, I need to go over the end of the year budget numbers we have.

  • Oh. Gosh. Really? Like now?

  • What, I mean, why don't you do it with Nick? You know? Please?

  • And now, the analysis.

  • Our class's official policy is to not discuss where anyone is attending next year.

  • We don't want them to feel insecure.

  • So this is a very long opening thought group.

  • She does a little pause here before the last two words,

  • and so that has its own separate thought group. Feel insecure, feel insecure, with feel and cure being longer.

  • But in the opening phrase is just very long, it will help to know your anchors, your stressed words,

  • to help you figure out how to organize the rhythm.

  • Our class's official policy is to not discuss where anyone is attending next year.

  • We don't want them to feel insecure.

  • Our class's official policy is to not discuss where anyone is attending next year.

  • We don't want them to feel insecure.

  • Our class's official policy is to not discuss where anyone is attending next year.

  • We don't want them to feel insecure.

  • Let's break it up into smaller chunks.

  • Our class's official policy

  • Our class's official policy

  • Our class's official policy

  • Our class's official policy

  • So I would say AH, IH, and AW here are our most stressed syllables. Our class's—

  • the word our is not fully pronounced, it's pronounced: ar, ar, ar, our class's.

  • Our class's, our class's, our class's.

  • So rather than thinking our, it's more like ar, ar, said very quickly. Our class's— our class's—

  • Now here, we have a noun that ends in an S and the possessive: class's.

  • So we have K, L, AH, class,

  • and the apostrophe S will add another syllable, IH as in Sit, Z.

  • Our class's uh--

  • and that Z will link right into the schwa of official because everything links together in a thought group.

  • We don't want any breaks or separation between words.

  • This smoothness is important in American English.

  • It can be really tough if you come from a language where each word needs to feel more separate.

  • Our class's official policy.

  • Practice the sentence and move your arm in a circle and let the top of the circle be that peak, that peak of pitch.

  • Our class's official policy.

  • Our class's official policy.

  • Our class's official policy.

  • Our class's official policy.

  • Don't make this an OH sound, it's a schwa. Uh, uh.

  • Basically no jaw drop, lips are parted,

  • just a relaxed jaw. Uh uh uh Official, official, it's not official, oh oh oh, uh uh uh official.

  • And the letter C here makes the SH sound. Official, cial, cial.

  • This letter I just tells us to make the C an SH, so there's no pronunciation itself of this letter.

  • And then the letter A is again just a schwa. Schwa L, a little quick dark sound. Official uhl uhl uhl.

  • So the schwa and L combined, you don't need to try to make a separate schwa sound, and then an L.

  • This is actually going to be a dark L. What does that mean?

  • That means it comes after the vowel or diphthong in the syllable,

  • and if the next word begins with a consonant, you do not need to lift your tongue tip.

  • Official uhl, you just make that dark sound with your tongue tip down, uhl, policy, and go right into the P.

  • Do not lift your tongue tip. That will definitely make the sound feel more forward.

  • We want it to feel more in the back. Uhl. That dark sound is made by

  • pressing down and back a little bit the back of the tongue. Uhl, uhl, official.

  • Official, official, official policy.

  • Official policy.

  • Now here, for this L, you can lift your tongue tip. But for this L, do not lift your tongue tip.

  • Official policy. Our class's official policy. Uhhhhh. Feel that rhythm.

  • Our class's official policy

  • Our class's official policy

  • Our class's official policy is to not discuss where anyone is attending.

  • Is to not discuss where anyone is attending.

  • So we have that uh feeling of stress on: is to not discuss where any, a little bit there on the EH vowel.

  • Letter A, but the vowel is EH. Where anyone is attending.

  • So rather than drawing it as an up down shape, which is the normal shape of stress, I'm drawing it as a scoop up,

  • because her pitch is on the way up. And when we're making the intonation of the sentence go up,

  • then the scoop of the voice will be down up, attending.

  • Is to not discuss where anyone is attending

  • Is to not discuss where anyone is attending

  • Is to not discuss where anyone is attending

  • So even though I've broken it up into two pieces here while we discuss the stress,

  • it's actually not a break, is it?

  • Policy is, policy is,

  • continues right on with no break in sound.

  • This is all part of the same thought group.

  • policy is to--

  • Policy is to not-- did you notice the word to?

  • Policy is to to, to, that was a true T and a schwa. To, to, to, just like here in official,

  • oh, it's not oh, it's uh, uh, official. And here, to, it's not to, it's to, to, a schwa, it's a reduction here.

  • Here, in official, it's actually just the regular pronunciation of the word.

  • Here, the word to, it's a reduction from the OO vowel to the schwa. To, to. Policy is to.

  • Why do we do that? Why do we change the vowel? It lets us say it more quickly.

  • And we want to say it really quickly. We want these words to be flatter, lower in pitch,

  • so that there's contrast with the up down shape, longer stressed syllable. Policy is to.

  • So actually, in the word policy, it's three syllables with first syllable stress,

  • so the second two syllables are also unstressed. So we have four unstressed syllables here in a row.

  • Li-cy is to-- policy is to-- policy is to--

  • And we definitely want it to feel different than our stressed syllables. Policy is to not

  • Policy is to not

  • Policy is to not

  • Policy is to not discuss

  • Not discuss, not discuss, do you notice there's no release of that T?

  • That T is a stop T because the next word begins with the consonant, the D consonant, not discuss.

  • Not discuss--

  • where anyone is attending.

  • Not discuss where anyone, where anyone. As I said there's just a little bit of an up down shape on EH,

  • but really, where anyone is uh. This is all flatter and lower in pitch.

  • The first syllable of attending, also a schwa. The schwa creeps up everywhere in American English.

  • Not discuss where anyone is attending

  • Not discuss where anyone is attending

  • Not discuss where anyone is attending

  • Where anyone is a, where anyone is atten--, this double T here is a true T because it starts a stressed syllable.

  • T will always be a true T when it starts a stressed syllable,

  • unless it's part of the TR cluster, then it might sound more like CH.

  • Where anyone is attending

  • Where anyone is attending

  • Where anyone is attending next year

  • Attending next year, next year, this is all on the way up

  • because she's about to say why.

  • So she's pairing these two phrases together by making one go up.

  • Attending next year. And then the next one will go down in pitch.

  • Attending next year

  • Attending next year

  • Attending next year

  • Now something is interesting. It's happening here with the T in next.

  • Next year.

  • It's not a ttt sound it's more of a CH sound, next, ch, ch, ch, so the letter X makes KS in this word

  • and the T is combining with the Y. The Y is influencing the T. The Y in year changes it to a CH.

  • next year.

  • Have you ever noticed this? In a phrase like: what are you doing?

  • It's fairly common to drop R in a nice, casual reduction, and say: what cha, what cha doing?

  • What ch ch ch-- that's taking the ending T of what and the y of you and making it into a CH.

  • You'll definitely notice that if you pay attention to casual conversational English.

  • Next year. Ch ch ch ch. Not: next year, next year, but: next year.

  • next year.

  • we don't want them to--

  • We don't want them toso then in the last part of this thought group, we really just have the one swell of pitch,

  • the one stressed syllable. We don't want them to.

  • We don't want them to. So the energy is building up towards that and then falling away from it.

  • We don't want them to.

  • We have a stop T in want, it's not want them, but want them, them.

  • Oh are you noticing that reduction? I'm not saying them, am I?

  • I'm changing the EH vowel to the schwa,

  • the schwa comes up yet again. Want them, want them to.

  • To, that's another schwa. Want them to, want them to, want them to, to, to, to, them to, them to, them to.

  • We don't want them to--

  • And as far as the T in don't, I'm not really hearing it. We don't want, don't www--

  • Right from N into W. So N apostrophe T contractions can be pronounced three ways:

  • with a true T, don't want, with a stop T, don't want, or with no T, don't want.

  • And I'm hearing this one as a dropped T altogether, no T whatsoever. Don't want, we don't want.

  • We don't want--

  • to feel insecure.

  • Feel insecure. We already talked about the up down shape, the stress, the rhythm of this, the melody as well.

  • Duuuhhhh--- feel inse-- that L is going to link right into the IH vowel of insecure.

  • We want to connect them. Feel inse

  • So this is a dark L, you do want to make a dark sound after the EE vowel.

  • Otherwise, it would be feel. We want feeuhll, uhl. We definitely want that to be a part of it.

  • But you can lift your tongue tip here because the next word begins with a vowel.

  • Feel insecure. But make sure you make that dark sound first. Slow it down if you need to.

  • Feel insecure, cure, cure. And the pitch goes down.

  • Feel insecure--

  • Very thoughtful.

  • So the principal responds: very thoughtful.

  • What do you think are those up down shape? Those most stressed syllables?

  • Very thoughtful.

  • Very thoughtful. So each word is two syllables, and in each word, it's the first syllable that's stressed.

  • Uuuhhhh. Very thoughtful. This is a stop T because the next sound is a consonant.

  • Very thyth, yth, connected, no break in sound between the EE and the unvoiced TH.

  • For this sound, your tongue tip does have to lightly come through the teeth. Very thoughtful.

  • Very thoughtful.

  • Very thoughtful.

  • Very thoughtful.

  • Now this L is another dark L.

  • It comes at the end of the word, so we know it's at the end of the vowel in the syllable.

  • And because he's not going on, because there's no next sound, no vowel or diphthong,

  • you can just avoid lifting your tongue tip.

  • Thoughtful. Uhl, uhl, uhl, uhl, uhl.

  • It's just a really quick dark sound. If you lift your tongue tip, it's going to bring the sound more forward.

  • We actually want this sound to be further back in the mouth. Uhl, uhl, uhl, uhl, thoughtful.

  • Thoughtful.

  • Anyway, I need to go over the end of the year budget numbers we have.

  • Okay so what are her longer syllables?

  • Anyway, I need to go over the end of the year budget numbers we have.

  • Anyway, I need to go over the end of the year budget numbers we have.

  • Anyway, I need to go over the end of the year budget numbers we have.

  • Anyway-- a little bit there on that stressed syllable, that first syllable.

  • Remember, that is the EH vowel like in bed, even though it's the letter A. Anyway. Anyway.

  • Anyway. Anyway. Anyway, I need to go over the end of the year budget numbers we have.

  • Okay, need is very obvious. She holds that out even longer than

  • what would be the most normal conversational English.

  • I need to go over. I need to, I need to go over. Really stressing that, holding out the vowel

  • makes it clear this is important to her.

  • I need to go--

  • Look, we have another word to, what do you think, will it reduce? Will we again have a schwa?

  • I need to go. To, to, yes, we do.

  • We reduce that vowel. I need to go.

  • I need to go--

  • over the end of the year budget numbers we have.

  • I need to go over the end of the— I really feel like that's our next stressed syllable.

  • Again, it's the EH vowel. So, to go over the, all less stressed, flatter in pitch.

  • To go over the, to go over the, to go over the, to go over the.

  • To go over the--

  • If we said everything that way, it would be incredibly unclear.

  • I need to go over the, I need to go over the end of the year numbers we have.

  • I need to go over the end of the year budget numbers we have.

  • I need to go over the end of the year budget numbers we have.

  • I need to go over the end of the year budget numbers we have.

  • I need to go over the end of the year budget numbers we have.

  • Come on, that's impossible. That's why we have the contrast. We bring out our longer stressed syllables.

  • I need to go over the, I need, and that's what's important in American English conversation, in spoken English,

  • is that we have the contrast of the long and the short. So it may feel very odd to take a phrase like: to go over the,

  • and