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  • Today you're transforming your spoken English by studying a scene from the movie, First Man, with me.

  • This is the story of Neil Armstrong, and the thing I love about this,

  • he's in an interview and he speaks very thoughtfully, very intentionally. We're going to go in-depth,

  • studying how he expresses himself, and we're also going to study how the melody of a sentence can

  • change the meaning. When you study scene the way we're going to in this video, you'll be

  • able to understand American movies and TV effortlessly without subtitles.

  • Does anyone have anything else?

  • We're going to be doing this all summer, June through August, stick with me every Tuesday,

  • they're all great scenes and there's going to be so much to learn that can transform the way

  • you speak and understand English.

  • And as always, if you liked this video or you learn something please, like and subscribe with notifications.

  • You're going to watch the clip, then we're going to do a full pronunciation analysis together.

  • This is going to help so much with your listening comprehension when it comes

  • to watching English movies in TV. But there's going to be a training section.

  • You're going to take what you've just learned and practice repeating it, doing a reduction, flapping a T,

  • just like you learned in the analysis. Ok, here's the scene.

  • I don't know what space exploration will uncover, but

  • I don't think it will be exploration just for the sake of exploration.

  • Does anyone have anything else?

  • Yeah. You know, I was sorry to hear about your daughter.

  • Do you think it will have an effect?

  • I think it would be unreasonable to assume that it wouldn't have some effect.

  • And now, the analysis.

  • I don't know what space exploration will uncover, but I don't think it will be

  • exploration just for the sake of exploration.

  • So he has a pretty long sentence here, but he breaks it up into a lot of smaller thought groups. The first one

  • is after the word what, he pauses, let's look at these first four words.

  • I don't know what,

  • It's a little bit unclear, isn't it? It certainly doesn't sound like: I don't know what.

  • I don't know what,

  • I don't know what. Uhhh. It's just one big phrase with one peak. I don't know what. Uhhh.

  • And everything glides together really smoothly. I don't know.

  • So the T is dropped, and these two words connect with a single N sound. K of course is silent in this word. I don't know what.

  • I don't know what,

  • And the OH diphthong in don't, OH

  • changes here to the UH, that's somewhat common in the phrase: I don't know, becomes: don't know.

  • I don't know, I don't know, I don't know.

  • I don't know,

  • So I would actually write this: doh know, with stress on know. I don't know. I don't know.

  • And because of the AI diphthong before, this D is just a flap, dadadadada.

  • I don't know what. I don't know what.

  • I don't know what,

  • What, the vowel on what, what, what, what, what, what. To me, he's darkened it a little bit. It's not quite uh,

  • uh, uh, it's almost a little bit like push.

  • What..

  • I don't know what, what, uhuhuh.

  • Definitely he does a stop T at the end there, because it's a T at the end of a thought group,

  • and he does pronounce the word what, without that wh sound in front.

  • So WH words can be pronounced with the pure W, or with a what, escape of air before.

  • He does not do that escape of air.

  • What, what, what.

  • What..

  • I don't know what.

  • I don't know what.

  • space exploration will.

  • Space exploration will,

  • and then a little bit of a pause here as he continues to think about how to articulate his answer.

  • So let's look at these three words and is there just one peak of stress like I don't know what?

  • Or do we have more than one feeling of an up-down shape?

  • Space exploration will,

  • Space exploration. I feel two stressed syllables there.

  • Space exploration will.

  • Space and ay, the AY diphthong here in exploration, TION is the SH, shwa N ending.

  • Tion tion tion, space exploration. We have an ending S in space, and ending S sound,

  • and it links right into the beginning vowel of the next word, EH, space eh, seh, seh, sexploration.

  • Space exploration,

  • So there's no break in sound there. Everything connects really smoothly.

  • Space exploration..

  • will.

  • Exploration will. Will, And then he holds this out a little bit while he's thinking.

  • Will, doesn't reduce the vowel. Sometimes, we do, sometimes, we might say: space exploration will,

  • will, will, but he doesn't do that, he keeps the IH vowel. Space exploration will.

  • Space exploration will,

  • uncover but.

  • Uncover but, he does a little break here, he makes a stop T, he does not connect it to the AI diphthong,

  • that would be: but I, but I, and that would be pretty common to connect, but he is breaking this up a lot,

  • and so he breaks it up here. He is speaking slowly, intentionally. Uncover but.

  • Uncover but,

  • What's our stressed syllable there?

  • Uncover but,

  • Uncover but.

  • Just one, and it's uncov, uncover. So we have the letter O but it's the UH as in butter vowel.

  • There's no lip rounding for that. Uncover. Cover. Just like in the word love, ove, ove, cove, cover, uncover but.

  • Stop T.

  • Uncover but,

  • I don't think it will be.

  • I don't think it'll be, and then he holds out the EE vowel a little bit here at the end of 'be', while he's thinking.

  • I don't think it will be.

  • I don't think it will be.

  • I don't think it will be. Don't and be both have that uhhhhh, up-down shape.

  • And then we have, we have a really beautiful rhythm here. Dadadadada, dadadadadada,

  • I is shorter, think it will, shorter, actually 'it will' is contracted, it's not it will, but it's it'll, it'll,

  • so I would write that with the IH vowel, flap T, schwa L. It'll, It'll,It'll, It'll, It'll, It'll, It'll, It'll,

  • just like the word little, but without the L. It'll, It'll, It'll. I don't think it'll.

  • I don't think it'll.

  • I don't think it'll be.

  • I don't think it'll be.

  • Now here, ourN apostrophe T in don't.

  • The word don't just pronounced quite differently than it was the first time he said it.

  • We actually have a stop. So we do feel that as a T. I don't think. I don't think.

  • It's not dropped. That would be: I don't think, I don't think,

  • but it's: I don't think-- up that little break of air, that little stop, is the stop T.

  • Now what about this sound? Is it the OH diphthong? Or is it the UH vowel like in don't know?

  • I don't think.

  • I don't think. I don't, don't, don't, don't. Oh, oh, oh, oh.

  • I definitely hear that as the Oh diphthong. Not reduced. So the first time he said it, the diphthong changed,

  • and the T was dropped. Here, the diphthong doesn't change, and the T is a stop T.

  • I don't think.

  • Notice here the stress was, the peak of stress was on the word know,

  • so it makes sense that some of those sounds changed, that that word was reduced a little bit.

  • Here, it's stressed, so it makes sense that we wouldn't reduce the vowel,

  • or the diphthong, rather and that we would leave the T on as a stop T.

  • I don't think it'll be.

  • I don't think it'll be.

  • And these three unstressed words said so quickly. Let's hear just those words.

  • Think it'll,

  • be.

  • Think it'll be. Think it'll be.

  • Really different than the word be, which is longer, more stressed.

  • Think it'll be.

  • exploration just.

  • Exploration.

  • This is a three syllable word, again with, sorry, four syllable word, with stress on the third syllable.

  • Exploration.

  • Now this unstressed syllable is actually supposed to be a schwa R.

  • Explora, he does a little bit more of a vowel. Explore, plore, plore.

  • And I think that's because it's related to the other form of the word,

  • so we have the verb: to explore,

  • and then we have the noun: exploration.

  • Verb, noun. So in the verb Explore, the IPA would be Ek, the letter X makes the KS sounds here,

  • Explore,

  • and in the noun, exploration, actually the opening vowel is a little bit more open, it's EH,

  • although honestly, if you said the verb

  • explore with the EH vowel, that would sound very natural and normal too.

  • Then we have another unstressed syllable. Splo-- with the schwa, stressed syllable,

  • Oops. We make that over here.

  • AY, and then unstressed, tion. So the noun, exploration.

  • Has a schwa here, I hear him doing more of an unstressed AA plus R, that's okay.

  • Exploration.

  • So he's seeing more of exploration, explore, explore, explore, exploration.

  • Exploration,

  • He is speaking more slowly and more intentionally I think than what is normal conversational English.

  • And even though that pronunciation isn't what you'll see in the dictionary,

  • it makes a lot of sense because of the verb.

  • Exploration--

  • Notice how on this stressed syllable, he nods his head. It's not uncommon as you study speakers to see

  • that they do a physical gesture sometimes on a stressed syllable.

  • When you're practicing with the audio later in this video, do that too. Do your head like he does.

  • Exploration,

  • just for the sake of exploration.

  • Just for the sake, some up down stress there. Sake of exploration. And again,

  • stress on that third syllable.

  • Just for the sake of exploration,

  • You're going to get really comfortable with the word exploration, aren't you?

  • He says it's three times in this opening phrase.

  • Now, between our stressed words exploration, and sake, we have three unstressed words, and then also,

  • the unstressed syllable here, tion just for the, and I want to look at this. He really holds out the S

  • while he's still thinking being thoughtful, speaking slowly, even so, he drops the T.

  • Just for the sake,

  • And that's because it's just so common to drop the T when the next word begins with a consonant.

  • Just for the, for the,

  • and it's not for, is it? It's fer, fer, fer, schwa R. Fer, just fer the.

  • Just for the,

  • sake of exploration.

  • Just for the sake of exploration.

  • Now we have another unstressed syllable here 'of', an unstressed word.

  • Schwa V, you can drop that V, but I definitely hear him saying it.

  • Sake of exploration.

  • It's weak, and it's subtle, but I don't sense that it's: sake uh.

  • I sense that its: sake of, sake of exploration.

  • Sake of exploration,

  • So we have after the stressed syllables sake, we have three unstressed syllables in a row.

  • Of explo-- of explo-- of explo-- of explo--

  • And you got to try to keep your mouth really relaxed,

  • keep your movements released simple, and minimal in these unstressed syllables.

  • Of explo-- of exploration.

  • Of exploration,

  • Of exploration. And then let your mouth come more to life in the stressed syllable,

  • more jaw drop therefore the AY diphthong, explo-- explo-- exploration, exploration.

  • Of exploration,

  • Does anyone have anything else?

  • Yeah.

  • So one of the men interviewing him asks the panel a question.

  • What is the shape of stress here? What are the most stressed syllables?

  • Does anyone have anything else?

  • Does anyone have anything else?

  • Does anyone have anything else?

  • Does anyone, anyone, have anything else?

  • I hear those as being the most stressed syllables, and the pitch goes up because it's a yes/no question.

  • Let's look at how he pronounces this first word does.

  • Does anyone,

  • In IPA, that would be written with the D, UH as in butter and Z.

  • But he drops the first two sounds. Does anyone, Does anyone, Does anyone.

  • And just links the Z into the EH as in bed vowel, which is the first sound of the word anyone,

  • Does anyone, Does anyone, Does anyone?

  • Does anyone,

  • It's not uncommon to do that. Have you ever heard anyone take 'does that' and change it to 'zzaat?'

  • I have heard people do that. It's like they drop the first two sounds of does,

  • the first sound of that, and in IPA it becomes: zzaat, zzaat, zzaat, zzaat.

  • Does that mean you're going to be late? Does that , Does that , Does that?

  • It's funny how we make these reductions, isn't it? So here he's taking the word does,

  • he's reduced it to the Z sound, and he's attached it to the word that comes after anyone.

  • Does anyone? Does anyone?

  • Does anyone,

  • have anything else?

  • Everything just links together so smoothly, doesn't it?

  • Does anyone have anything else?

  • Does anyone have anything else?

  • I want to talk about the word else. In IPA, it's written EH as in bed, LS,

  • else, so the L is a dark L because it comes after the vowel in the syllable. This is a one syllable word.

  • El? So we make that dark sound with the back of the tongue and I'm not lifting my tongue tip.

  • Ell, uhl, uhl, uhl, uhl, uhlse.

  • So don't lift your tongue tip for that L, it will get in the way, it's an extra movement,

  • it will probably make the dark sound less clear.

  • So you do the EH vowel, then you take the back of your tongue, you pull it back and down a little bit, uhl, uhl,

  • ell-- and that's it, don't lift your tongue tip, go right into the S.

  • Else?

  • Yeah.

  • And then we hear really quietly: yeah. Yeah. Yeah. Yeah. Yeah.

  • Up-down shape. Not much of vocal energy. Yeah.

  • Yeah.

  • You know, I was sorry to hear about your daughter.

  • Okay, one thought group. Every word linked together. No stops. What are our peaks of stress?

  • You know, I was sorry to hear about your daughter.

  • You know, I was sorry to hear about your daughter.

  • You know, I was sorry to hear about your daughter.

  • You know, I was sorry to hear about your daughter.

  • Okay, now I have to talk about this. When I first wrote the transcript for this, I used this word.

  • You know, I was sorry to hear about your daughter.

  • Then when I listened to it again, I thought it sounded more like this:

  • You know, I was sorry to hear about your daughter.

  • And now that I'm listening to it a third time, I think it sounds like Neil again.

  • And it's just, it's crazy to me that I'm having a hard time telling the difference here.

  • Because these words are so different.

  • We have Neil, which I would probably write with