字幕表 動画を再生する 英語字幕をプリント SPEAKER: And welcome to your Week 2 video tutorial. This week we're going to be talking about the concept of an artifact. For your upcoming assignments in Humanities 100, you're going to be choosing a number of artifacts that you'll be discussing in more detail. And as far as the definition of it goes and as far as the purposes of our Humanities 100 course, there's a specific way we want you to think about this concept of an artifact. You've got some readings, of course, the new materials in Blackboard to help you define the term artifact more clearly. But we also wanted to give you a quick tutorial to clarify, as well. So again, for the purposes of our Humanities 100 course, when defining an artifact you want to think of two main elements of that definition. That first element is that it must be something that is man-made. So it's not something that's naturally occurring or found in nature. It has to be created by man. So it can be a physical object. It can be one of the more traditional creative visual works of art like a painting, a building, a statue, even a photograph, something that you can actually hold. Or it can be an intangible creation-- so a song, a dance, a choreographed performance, a television show, again these aren't things that are tangible, they're not physical, but they are created by man. Secondly, an artifact should not be primarily functional or practical. Its main purpose is not to create a function or to result in a particular function. It is more of that creative expression that we're thinking about here. So it should have some artistic qualities to it. It should embody creative expression in one way or another. And it should present individual ideas. So simply an object that performs a function or purpose like a chair or a table, while it might be beautiful or beautifully made, it's not necessarily an artifact because its primary function is to perform for an individual or to create a utilitarian purpose. So some examples-- we think about a seashell that's found on the beach. Yes, it's beautiful. We can admire it. But it's not an artifact. Again, it's not man-made. This is something that's natural found in the world without our having to create it. However, a necklace or another kind of adornment or work of artistic expression that uses a seashell or seashells would be considered an artifact. Because while the seashell itself is not an artifact, the necklace or the adornment that's created with it is created by man and therefore falls into the definition of artifact. Another example, a smartphone-- again, this seems like it would be an artifact. It's man-made. And there's definitely a case to be made for it being something that's beautiful. But a smartphone itself is not an artifact. , Because its main purpose is something beyond just being a visual or aesthetic element for us to look at or to think about creatively. It has more purposes that are more at the forefront-- communication, posting onto the web, those kind of technological elements to it. However, we can find artifacts that deal with the concept of a smartphone. So Eric Pickersgill's Removed photographic series of photographs that he made where he's looking at the affect of smartphones on us as a culture-- these are creative expressions by the artist himself thinking about the concept of the cell phone or the smartphone. So these photographs and this series of photographs would be considered an artifact, because it's a creative expression created by man that brings in individual ideas. And its primary function is not that of what the smartphone is for, but it's for getting us to think or getting us to reflect on the ideas of an artifact. I also wanted to remind you of the difference between an artifact and a symbol-- one that a lot of students think of is the idea of Uncle Sam. The simple concept of Uncle Sam would not be considered an artifact when we think about it. It's an idea. It's a symbol. It became a symbol or a personification of the United States based off of an actual man. But the idea of Uncle Sam, in itself, is not an artifact. However, if you wanted to focus on a work like James Montgomery Flagg's poster for the army, I Want You For US Army, that features this image of Uncle Sam, then that itself, the poster itself, the work created by Flagg would be considered an artifact. So again, you can kind of see the difference here that just the concept of Uncle Sam or saying that you're going to choose quote, unquote, "Uncle Sam" as your artifact would not qualify as an artifact because it's an idea. Whereas an actual creation of a work like the I Want You poster by Flagg would be considered an artifact.