Placeholder Image

字幕表 動画を再生する

  • Late one night in 1871, a group of riders descended on a sleeping army camp.

  • In minutes they stirred the camp into a panic,

  • stole about 70 horses, and disappeared.

  • Led by a young chief named Quanah Parker,

  • the raid was the latest in a long series of altercations

  • along the Texas frontier between the indigenous people

  • known as the Numunu, or Comanches,

  • and the United States forces sent to steal Comanche lands

  • for white settlers.

  • Though the conflict was decades old,

  • U.S. Colonel Ranald MacKenzie led the latest iteration.

  • From summer to winter, he tracked Quanah.

  • But Quanah was also tracking him,

  • and each time the colonel drew near his targets,

  • they disappeared without a trace into the vast plains.

  • The Comanches had controlled this territory for nearly 200 years,

  • hunting buffalo and moving whole villages around the plains.

  • They suppressed Spanish and Mexican attacks from the south,

  • attempts to settle the land by the United States from the east,

  • and numerous other indigenous peoples' bids for power.

  • The Comanche Empire was not one unified group under central control,

  • but rather a number of bands, each with its own leaders.

  • What all of these bands had in common was their prowess as riders

  • every man, woman, and child was adept on horseback.

  • Their combat skills on horseback

  • far surpassed those of both other indigenous peoples and colonists,

  • allowing them to control an enormous area with relatively few people

  • probably about 40,000 at their peak

  • and only about 4-5,000 by the time

  • Quanah Parker and Ranald Mackenzie faced off.

  • Born around 1848, Quanah was the eldest child of Peta Nocona,

  • a leader of the Nokoni band, and Cynthia Ann Parker,

  • a kidnapped white settler who assimilated with the Comanches

  • and took the name Naduah.

  • When Quanah was a preteen,

  • U.S. forces ambushed his village, capturing his mother and sister.

  • Quanah and his younger brother sought refuge with a different Comanche band,

  • the Quahada.

  • In the years that followed, Quanah proved himself as a warrior and leader.

  • In his early twenties, he and a young woman named Weakeah eloped,

  • enraging her powerful father and several other leaders.

  • They stayed on the run for a year,

  • attracting followers and establishing Quanah as a paraibo, or chief,

  • at an exceptionally young age.

  • Under his leadership the Quahada band was able to elude the U.S. military

  • and continue their way of life.

  • But in the early 1870s, the East Coast market for buffalo hides became lucrative,

  • and hunters slaughtered millions of buffalo in just a few years.

  • Meanwhile, U.S. forces led a surprise attack,

  • killing nearly all the Quahada band's 1,400 horses and stealing the rest.

  • Though he had vowed to never surrender, Quanah knew that without bison or horses,

  • the Comanches faced certain starvation in winter.

  • So in 1875 Quanah and the Quahada band

  • moved to the Fort Sill reservation in Oklahoma.

  • As hunter-gatherers, they could not transition easily

  • to an agricultural way of life on the reservation.

  • The U.S. government had promised rations and supplies,

  • but what they provided was wildly insufficient.

  • Quanah, meanwhile, was suddenly in a weak political position:

  • he had no wealth or power compared to others

  • who had been on the reservation longer.

  • Still, he saw an opportunity.

  • The reservation included ample grasslands

  • useless to the Comanches but perfect for cattle ranchers to graze their herds.

  • He began a profitable arrangement leasing the land to cattle ranchers,

  • quietly at first.

  • Eventually, he negotiated leasing rights with the U.S. government,

  • which ensured a steady source of income for the Comanches on the reservation.

  • As Quanah's status on the reservation

  • and recognition from government officials grew,

  • he secured better rations,

  • advocated for the construction of schools and houses,

  • and became one of three tribal judges on the reservation court.

  • Tired of speaking with multiple leaders,

  • the U.S. government wanted to appoint one chief of all Comanches

  • a role that hadn't existed outside the reservation.

  • Still, many Comanches supported Quanah for this role,

  • just as several older leaders had supported him

  • to lead them against the U.S. armed forces.

  • Even Quanah's former adversary, Ranald MacKenzie,

  • advocated for his appointment.

  • Quanah acted in Hollywood movies and befriended American politicians,

  • riding in Theodore Roosevelt's inauguration parade.

  • Still, he never cut his long braids

  • and advocated for the Native American Church and the use of peyote.

  • He began to go by Quanah Parker, adopting his mother's surname,

  • and tried to track down his mother and sister,

  • eventually learning they had both died shortly after their capture.

  • Quanah adapted again and againto different worlds, different roles,

  • and circumstances that would seem insurmountable to most.

  • Though he wasn't without critics, after Quanah's passing,

  • Comanches began using the termchairman

  • to designate the top elected official in the tribe,

  • recognizing him as the last chief of the Comanches

  • and a model of cultural survival and adaptation.

  • In that spirit, today's Comanche Nation looks towards the future,

  • with over 16,000 enrolled citizens and countless descendants.

Late one night in 1871, a group of riders descended on a sleeping army camp.

字幕と単語

動画の操作 ここで「動画」の調整と「字幕」の表示を設定することができます

B1 中級

コマンチ族の最後の酋長と帝国の崩壊 - Dustin Tahmahkera (The last chief of the Comanches and the fall of an empire - Dustin Tahmahkera)

  • 2 0
    林宜悉 に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
動画の中の単語