字幕表 動画を再生する 英語字幕をプリント we're gonna begin in 1964. Bob Dylan is 23 years old and his career is just reaching its pinnacle. He's been christened the voice of a generation, and he's churning out classic songs at a seemingly impossible rate. But there's a small minority of dissenters, and they claim Bob Dylan is stealing other people's songs. 2004. Brian Burton A K Danger Mouse takes the Beatles White Album, Combines it with Jay Z is the Black album. To create the Graham, the Graham becomes an immediate sensation online, and the Beatles record Company sends out countless cease and desist letters for unfair competition and dilution of our valuable property. The Grey Album is a remix. It is new media, created from old media. It was made using these three techniques. Copy, transform and combine. It's how you remix. You take existing songs, you chop them up, you transform the pieces. You combine them back together again. You've got a new song, but that new song is clearly comprised of old songs, but I think these aren't just the components of remixing. I think these are the basic elements of all creativity. I think everything is a remix, and I think this is a better way to conceive of creativity. All right, let's head back to 1964 and let's hear where some of Dylan's early songs came from. Could do some side by side comparisons here, right? This first song you're gonna hear is not, um, in town and your traditional folk tune. After that, you'll hear Dylan's Masters of War in autumn and sold. Not So Your Masters is War either. Build the big guns if a bill that US planes, if the bombs that's the same basic melody and overall structure, this next one is the Patriot Game by Dominic. Being alongside that, you're going to hear with God on our side by Dylan Young list, while for loved ones is a terrible thing. Oh, my name, you did my It means less the country, his car Midwest. So in this case, still limits. He must have heard the Patriot game. He forgot about it. Then, when Song kind of bubbled back up in his brain, he just thought it was his song. Last one, This is Who's gonna buy you ribbons. Another traditional folk tune alongside that is, don't think twice. It's all right, This one's more about the lyric used to soothe, Uh, and it ain't no use to sitting cry on. I didn't know you sit in one of a bit even you don't know by now. And then, you know, you sit in a lot of big Hey, don't ever do somehow. Okay, now there's a lot of these. It's been estimated that 2/3 of the melodies Dylan used in his early songs were borrowed. This is pretty typical among folk singers. Here's the advice of Dylan's idol, Woody Guthrie. The words are the important thing. Don't worry about tunes. Take a tune, Sing high when they sing low, sing fast. When they sing slow, you've got a new tune on. That's That's what Guthrie did right here. And I'm sure you all recognize the results. Wait, actually, you don't that is when the World's on Fire Very old melody. In this case performed by the Carter family, Guthrie adapted it into this land Is your man. So Bob Dylan. Like all folk singers, he copied melodies. He transformed them. He combined them with new lyrics, which were frequently their own concoction of previous stuff. Now, American copyright and patent laws run counter to this notion that we build on the work of others. Instead, these laws and laws around the world use the rather awkward analogy of property. Creative works may indeed be kind of like property, but it's property that we're all building on. And creations can Onley take root and grow once that ground has been prepared and before once said, I invented nothing new, I simply assembled the discoveries of other men behind whom were centuries of work. Progress happens when all the factors that make for it are ready, and then it is inevitable. 2007. The iPhone makes its debut. Apple undoubtedly brings this innovation to us early, but it's time was approaching because its core technology had been evolving for decades. That's multi touch controlling a device by touching its display. Here is Steve Jobs, introducing multi touch and making a rather foreboding joke, and we have invented a new technology called Multi Touch. You can do multi finger gestures on it. And, boy, have we patented it. Yes, and yet here is multi touch and actions that Ted actually about a year earlier. This is Jeff Han and, uh, I mean, that's multi touch. It's the same animal. At least let's hear what Jeff Han has to say about this newfangled technology. Multi touch sensing isn't anything isn't completely new. I mean, people like Bill Buxton have been playing around with in the eighties. The technology, you know, isn't isn't the most exciting thing here right now, other than probably its newfound accessibility. So he's pretty frank about it not being new. So it's not multi touch as a whole that's patented. It's the small parts of it that are, And it's in the small details where we can clearly see patent law contradicting its intent to promote the progress of useful arts. Here is the first ever slide to unlock that is all there is to it. Apple has patented this 28 page software patent, but I will summarize what it covers Spoiler alert, unlocking your phone by sliding an icon with your finger. I'm I'm only exaggerating a little bit. It's a broad patent now. Can someone own this idea now? Back in the eighties, there were no software patents, and it was Xerox that pioneered the graphical user interface. What if they had patented pop up menus Scroll borrows the desktop with icons that look like folders and sheets of paper. What a young and inexperienced Apple have survived the legal assault for much larger and more mature company like Xerox. This idea that everything is a remix, It might sound like common sense until you're the one getting remixed, for example. I mean, Picasso had a saying. It's a good artists copy. Great artists steal, and we have always been shameless about stealing great ideas. Yes, that's 96. Here's 2010. I'm going to destroy Android because it's a stolen product. I'm willing to go thermonuclear war on this, Okay, so in other words, great artists steal, but not for me now. Behavior economists might refer to this sort of thing as loss aversion. We have a strong predisposition towards protecting what we feel is ours. We have no such aversion towards copying what other people have because we do that nonstop. So here's the sort of equation we're looking at. We have laws that fundamentally treat creative works as property, plus massive rewards or settlements in infringement cases, plus huge legal fees to protect yourself in court, plus cognitive biases against perceived loss. Some looks like this. That is the last four years of lawsuits in the realm of smartphones. Is this promoting the progress of useful arts but to need a three? Bob Dylan is 42 years old, and it's time in the cultural spotlight is long since past records a song called Blind Willie Mattel. Named after the Blues, the song is a voyage through the past through a much darker time, but a simpler one. The timeline. Musicians like Willie Mattel had few illusions about what they did jumping from other writers, but I arrange them my own way. I think this is mostly what we do. Our creativity comes from without, not from within. We are not self made, were dependent on one another. Admitting this to ourselves isn't an embrace of mediocrity. Derivative nous. It's a liberation from our misconceptions, and it's an incentive to not expect so much from ourselves. And to simply begin. Thank you so much wasn't on it.