Placeholder Image

字幕表 動画を再生する

  • For nearly a decade,

  • my collaborators and I at the Self-Assembly Lab

  • have been working on material systems that transform themselves,

  • assemble themselves

  • and adapt to their environment.

  • From our early work on 4D printing,

  • where we printed objects, dipped them underwater,

  • and they transform,

  • to our active auxetics that respond to temperature and sunlight,

  • to our more recent work on active textiles

  • that respond to body temperature and change porosity,

  • to our rapid liquid printing work

  • where we print inflatable structures

  • that morph based on air pressure

  • and go from one shape to another,

  • or our self-assembly work

  • where we dip objects underwater,

  • they respond to wave energy and assemble themselves

  • into precise objects like furniture.

  • Or, at larger scales,

  • using wind energy,

  • we have meter-diameter weather balloons

  • that assemble in the airspace above a construction site.

  • For dangerous environments or harsh, extreme places

  • where it's hard to get people or equipment,

  • they can assemble in the airspace, and as the helium dies,

  • they then come back to the ground,

  • and you're left with a big space frame structure.

  • All of this research is about taking simple materials,

  • activating them with forces in their environment --

  • gravity, wind, waves, temperature, sunlight --

  • and getting them to perform,

  • getting them to transform, assemble, etc.

  • How do we build smart things

  • without complex electromechanical devices?

  • But more recently we were approached by a group in the Maldives,

  • and they were interested in taking some of this research and ways of thinking

  • and applying it to some of the challenges that they've faced

  • in terms of climate change.

  • And the first thing you do

  • when you're approached by someone in the Maldives

  • is say you want to go on a site visit.

  • (Laughter)

  • It is amazing.

  • So we went there

  • and I actually walked away with a really different perspective

  • on the future of climate change.

  • Because you would imagine, you know, the Maldives are sinking.

  • They're screwed. What are they going to do?

  • But I walked away thinking, they might be the model,

  • the future model of the built environment, where they can adapt and be resilient

  • rather than our fixed, man-made infrastructure.

  • But there's typically three main approaches

  • to sea level rise and climate change.

  • One of them is that we can do nothing and we can run away.

  • And that's a pretty bad idea.

  • As more than 40 percent of the world's population

  • is living in coastal areas,

  • as sea levels rise and as storms get worse and worse,

  • we're going to be more and more underwater.

  • So it's imperative that we solve this pretty demanding problem.

  • The second is that we can build barriers.

  • We can build walls.

  • The problem here is that we take a static solution

  • trying to fight against a superdynamic, high-energy problem,

  • and nature is almost always going to win.

  • So that's likely not going to work either.

  • The third approach is using dredging.

  • So dredging is where you suck up a bunch of sand from the deep ocean

  • and you pump it back onto the beaches.

  • If you go to any beach around the Northeast or Western Coast,

  • you'll see that they use dredging year after year after year

  • just to survive.

  • It's really not a good solution.

  • In the Maldives, they do the same thing, and they can build an island in a month,

  • a brand new island they build from dredging.

  • But it's really, really bad for the marine ecosystem,

  • and then they become addicted to dredging.

  • They need to do that year after year.

  • But in the time that it took them to build that one island,

  • three sandbars built themselves,

  • and these are massive amounts of sand

  • so big you can park your boat on it,

  • and this is what's called a site visit.

  • It's really hard work.

  • (Laughter)

  • In Boston winters.

  • This is massive amounts of sand that naturally accumulates

  • just based on the forces of the waves

  • and the ocean topography.

  • So we started to study that. Why do sandbars form?

  • If we could tap into that,

  • we could understand it and we could utilize it.

  • It's based on the amount of energy in the ocean

  • and the topography in the landscape that promotes sand accumulation.

  • So what we're proposing is to work with the forces of nature

  • to build rather than destroy,

  • and in my lab at MIT, we set up a wave tank,

  • a big tank that's pumping waves,

  • and we placed geometries underwater.

  • We tried all sorts of different geometries.

  • The waves interact with the geometry,

  • and then create turbulence and start to accumulate the sand

  • so the sand starts to form these sandbars on their own.

  • Here's an aerial view.

  • On the left-hand side, you'll see the beach that's growing.

  • In the middle you'll see the sandbar that formed.

  • So these are geometries that collaborate with the force of the wave to build.

  • We then started to fabricate one. This was in February in Boston.

  • We have large rolls of canvas.

  • It's a biodegradable material,

  • it's super cheap, easy to work with.

  • We then sew it into these large bladders,

  • and then we flew over there.

  • And I know what you're thinking. This is not the Fyre Festival.

  • (Laughter)

  • This is real life. It's real.

  • And we flew there with these canvas bladders in our suitcases,

  • we got sunburned because it was Boston winter,

  • and then we filled them with sand and we placed them underwater.

  • These are exactly the same geometries that you saw in the tank,

  • they're just human scale.

  • Large objects filled with sand,

  • we'd place them underwater, they're just really simple geometries.

  • In the front of them, you'll see it's clear water.

  • The waves are crashing over.

  • It's quite clear.

  • And then on the backside, there's turbulence.

  • The water and the sand is mixing up.

  • It's causing sediment transport, and then the sand is accumulating.

  • You'll see some friendly stingrays here that visited us.

  • On the left is day one, the right is day three.

  • You'll see the sand ripples in the light areas

  • where the sand is accumulating

  • just after two days.

  • So this was last February, and it's very much ongoing work.

  • This is just in the beginning of this research.

  • Over the next year and longer,

  • we're going to be studying this through satellite imagery

  • and bathymetry data

  • to understand what the short-term and long-term impacts are

  • of natural sand accumulation in the environment.

  • And the bigger vision, though,

  • is that we want to build submersible geometries,

  • almost like submarines that we can sink and float.

  • Like adaptable artificial reefs,

  • you could deploy them

  • if there's a storm coming from one direction or another

  • or if the seasons are changing,

  • you can use these adaptable reef structures

  • to use the force of the waves to accumulate sand.

  • And we think this could be used in many coastal regions

  • and many island nations around the world.

  • But when we think about building smarter environments,

  • think of smarter buildings or smarter cars or smarter clothing,

  • that typically means adding more power,

  • more batteries, more devices, more cost, more complexity

  • and ultimately more failure.

  • So we're always trying to think about how do we build smarter things with less?

  • How do we build smarter things that are simple?

  • And so what we're proposing at the lab and with this project specifically

  • is to use simple materials like sand

  • that collaborates with forces in the environment like waves

  • to accumulate and adapt.

  • And we'd like to work with you, collaborate with us, to develop this,

  • to scale it and apply this way of thinking.

  • We think it's a different model for climate change,

  • one that's about adaptation and resilience

  • rather than resistance and fear.

  • So help us turn natural destruction into natural construction.

  • Thank you.

  • (Applause)

For nearly a decade,

字幕と単語

動画の操作 ここで「動画」の調整と「字幕」の表示を設定することができます

B1 中級

島や海岸線を「育てる」新しい方法|スカイラー・ティビッツ (A new way to "grow" islands and coastlines | Skylar Tibbits)

  • 15 0
    林宜悉 に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
動画の中の単語