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  • Transcriber: Ivana Korom Reviewer: Krystian Aparta

  • I'm Dr. Julia Shaw,

  • a research associate at University College London,

  • and the cofounder of Spot.

  • Spot is a tool that helps organizations tackle harassment and discrimination

  • with better reporting options and better training.

  • And in 2019,

  • along with Dr. Camilla Elphick and Dr. Rashid Minhas,

  • and a number of international NGOs and charities,

  • we conducted one of the largest studies ever

  • on witnesses of harassment and discrimination at work.

  • Why witnesses?

  • The first time that I was victimized

  • and became the target of inappropriate workplace behavior,

  • I hadn't even left university.

  • A couple of academics who were far more senior than me

  • repeatedly and relentlessly targeted me.

  • And every time something happened,

  • I wished that someone would speak up.

  • That they would tell me that I'm not overreacting,

  • that I'm sane,

  • that there's something that we could do.

  • But instead,

  • I found myself with reporting paralysis.

  • I didn't speak up

  • and neither did most other people.

  • Why didn't I just speak up?

  • Well, I was worried about the consequences for my career,

  • because I loved my work.

  • I was also worried about things that many people see as barriers,

  • like not being believed or taken seriously,

  • like my situation resulting in no change.

  • Luckily, over the past couple of years,

  • we've seen that reporting paralysis is affecting fewer people

  • and some people are able to now have voices

  • who before were voiceless.

  • When we first started Spot,

  • we allowed people to submit statements

  • about experiencing harassment or discrimination

  • to talktospot.com.

  • And as researchers, we looked at these stories,

  • and we were shocked when we found

  • that 93 percent of victims reported that there was at least one witness.

  • These things aren't happening behind closed doors.

  • Further research has since come out

  • which has further repeated this idea

  • that most harassment and discrimination is witnessed.

  • And so how do we mobilize these witnesses?

  • First, let's talk about the psychology of being a witness.

  • In 2018, two women were at a Starbucks

  • when they watched a barista deny access to a washroom

  • to two African American men.

  • Instead, the barista called the police.

  • The two active bystanders took a video of the men in handcuffs

  • and posted it online.

  • This active bystanding had an almost immediate positive effect.

  • Starbucks closed a number of its doors and implemented bias training.

  • Most of us think that we would be these active bystanders.

  • That we would be these kinds of heroes.

  • In fact, in research on this,

  • when researchers give people hypothetical scenarios

  • and ask if they would intervene,

  • most of us say, "Yes, of course, of course I would stand up."

  • But even when those same researchers

  • present an actual physical situation where someone needs to actually intervene,

  • most people do nothing.

  • And they fall prey to the well-known bystander effect.

  • Why?

  • And what are the barriers that people are facing?

  • In our research,

  • three quarters of people who we had interviewed

  • and who we had participate in our study --

  • which was over 1,000 participants --

  • three quarters of them said

  • that they never reported the incident to HR,

  • they never reported the incident

  • to someone who could do something about it.

  • And the barriers that they cited?

  • The number one barrier was actually the exact same

  • as the main barrier that victims report,

  • which is the fear of consequences or retaliation.

  • Even witnesses are worried about what might happen

  • to them and their careers.

  • Other reasons that people reported

  • was not wanting to interfere or not wanting to be a snitch,

  • not knowing they could report, or not knowing how.

  • All of these things can be targeted

  • with better education and better systems in workplaces.

  • But the story of the witness isn't complete

  • without also talking about the consequences

  • for the witnesses themselves.

  • If you were to see someone who just witnessed a crime

  • being committed on the street,

  • you would almost certainly go up to that witness

  • and say, "Are you OK?

  • Do you need some support?"

  • You might even offer them counseling or therapy

  • to process what they just saw.

  • But witnesses at work are largely invisible.

  • And of course, so is support for them.

  • And some of this invisibility might even be internalized.

  • When we asked our participants about reporting,

  • and when we asked them about the negative consequences for them,

  • we found that most people said, when asked directly,

  • "Did witnessing this experience have a negative repercussion?"

  • Most people said, "No, I'm fine."

  • But when we looked at the qualitative entries,

  • when we looked at what people actually wrote about this experience,

  • we found that these experiences had profoundly negative impacts.

  • They increased stress and anxiety and depression,

  • they increased the prevalence of desire to leave the organization,

  • loss of faith.

  • Why is there this discrepancy?

  • It seems that we're doing a comparative evaluation.

  • "Compared to the victim,

  • nothing really happened to me."

  • But that's not really the right question.

  • And support shouldn't be invisible

  • just because you're less affected.

  • Because we're all affected

  • and we should all be supporting each other.

  • We also found evidence of a social contagion.

  • While 23 percent of participants told HR,

  • more, 46 percent, told colleagues, usually someone on their team,

  • and 67 percent told someone outside of work.

  • What this shows is that the negative consequences of the situation,

  • where someone is harassed or discriminated against,

  • go far beyond the room.

  • People take that story with them

  • and that discontent grows as they tell more and more people,

  • and this has the real effect

  • that is almost certainly threatening your ability as an organization

  • to retain and attract diverse and excellent candidates.

  • So what do we do to stop this social contagion?

  • What do we do to reduce these barriers

  • and how do we provide support for witnesses and victims?

  • How can we be better allies?

  • And it's easier than you might think.

  • In my research, I've come across five particular things

  • that I think every organization can and should do

  • to help tackle this issue

  • and to build healthier workplaces.

  • First, showcase your commitment.

  • If your leadership isn't repeatedly saying

  • how important diversity and inclusion is to them,

  • and living by example,

  • no one is going to believe you.

  • An HR-driven campaign is insufficient.

  • Your organization is a direct mirror of its leadership team,

  • and they need to be setting the tone.

  • Second, train your managers.

  • The main person who's likely to harass someone in your organization

  • is a manager.

  • Now, why?

  • Perhaps because power corrupts,

  • or perhaps because we promote people into managerial roles

  • because they're excellent at their jobs,

  • and we assume that they will pick up the people skills,

  • pick up the management skills along the way.

  • But then they don't.

  • And this provides a fertile ground for harassment and discrimination

  • with unrealistic expectations,

  • with poor time management,

  • with poor conflict management skills.

  • Train your managers.

  • Third, we know from research on victims

  • that without the ability to report anonymously,

  • the fear of consequences is so overwhelming

  • that most people will never report incidents.

  • We found the same was true for witnesses.

  • When we asked them directly, in our study,

  • whether organizations could do something

  • to improve the fact that they might report,

  • they said, number one that they could do better

  • was allowing for witness anonymity.

  • Second was providing choices about who to report to.

  • Perhaps shockingly,

  • although managers are the most likely person

  • to be perpetrating harassment or discrimination,

  • in many organizations

  • they're also supposed to be your first point of contact

  • when things go wrong.

  • Now that's a major sticking point.

  • So being able to choose who you go to is crucial.

  • Third, encouraging witness reporting.

  • Back to setting a tone in your organization,

  • saying you can and should report things,

  • and you can help stand up for each other.

  • Fourth, even when you have all of this in place,

  • most people will not speak to HR.

  • We know this, because at Spot,

  • we though anonymity would solve everything.

  • It did not.

  • Anonymity is one piece of the puzzle.

  • Conducting surveys means that you go out to your employees,

  • you don't wait for them to come to you.

  • And you ask everybody about how they feel

  • about the health of inclusion and diversity efforts

  • within the organization.

  • And be specific.

  • Ask people about specific incidents or specific things they've witnessed.

  • Because just like in our survey,

  • if you ask people directly

  • if they have experienced harassment or discrimination,

  • the default answer is no.

  • But if you ask about specific experiences or specific behaviors,

  • most people go, "Oh, yeah, I saw that the other week."

  • So making sure you ask the right questions is crucial.

  • Finally, and most importantly,

  • research shows that one of the best ways to mitigate the bystander effect

  • is to build a shared social identity.

  • It's not about policing each other,

  • it's not about calling each other out,

  • it's about being a cohesive unit.

  • We are in this together.

  • If you attack one of us,

  • you are attacking all of us.

  • Because wouldn't you want that?

  • Wouldn't you want someone to stand by you if something negative happens?

  • We're all, hopefully, collectively building an organization

  • that is stronger and healthier and more diverse and inclusive.

  • Without my allies, I wouldn't be here.

  • When I was first targeted with inappropriate behavior at work,

  • I fell into a depression,

  • and I almost left academia altogether.

  • Without a few people who stood by me,

  • I wouldn't be on this stage right now.

  • And I wish I had a happy ending for you.

  • But unfortunately, these individuals are still at it.

  • You see, in organizational structures where colleagues work in dispersed ways,

  • where it's difficult to know who even to report to,

  • never mind what the consequences might be,

  • these kinds of behaviors are most likely to flourish for longer.

  • But that doesn't stop me from trying to stop it.

  • And I can tell you one thing --

  • that over the past couple of years of my research,

  • I have found that there have been so many positive changes.

  • Changes in legislation,

  • changes in attitudes,

  • and organizations are finally taking these issues seriously.

  • I swear, the time of the harassers and the bullies and the discriminators

  • is coming to an end.

  • Thank you.

  • (Applause)

Transcriber: Ivana Korom Reviewer: Krystian Aparta

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ハラスメントの目撃者を支援し、より健全な職場を構築する方法|ジュリア・ショー (How to support witnesses of harassment and build healthier workplaces | Julia Shaw)

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    林宜悉 に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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