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  • Zero, all engines running. We have a liftoff. One small step for man…”

  • Alright, I guess we should just say what's going on.

  • We thought it'd be a good time to talk about a part of the Apollo 11 mission that often

  • gets overlooked, which was the quarantine: including time in a refitted Airstream trailer

  • and a lab. You're gonna get to see some of the engineering

  • that NASA's really famous for, but applied to a totally different problem, which is:

  • how do you keep a lunar plague from hitting the Earth?

  • Yeah. We've done a few other episodes of this

  • where one of us knows something, the other doesn't. This time, we've all just been

  • cramming on quarantine facts about this Apollo 11 quarantine.

  • And seeing so many men in, like, short sleeve shirts.

  • And we're gonna talk to Amy Teitel from Vintage Space, a channel that Phil and I both

  • really like. So yeah, this is the quarantine edition of

  • History Club. Yay. I wanted to talk about the stuff before we

  • get with Amy though, like about the period of the 20th century and vaccinations in general.

  • The moon landing is happening in July of 1969. It was kind of an optimistic time in the middle

  • of the 20th century: measles, mumps, polio, these had all been beaten back and, like,

  • we felt pretty good about being able to contain potential diseases.

  • Even though there's an extremely low probability that anything contaminated is on the moon,

  • if there was even a chance that they could bring something back, it would be truly novel

  • and potentially devastating to life on Earth. Alright, can you see that?

  • Yeah. Oh wait, this is the quote that I love. “They

  • will be treated not as heroes, but as bearers of the most virulent devastating plague the

  • world has ever known.” I love that. And plague is spelled wrong.

  • This is how Venom in Spiderman got to Earth. So...this is important stuff. This is an idea

  • that we've become very familiar with now, because we have the coronavirus is so dangerous

  • is because no human's ever had it before. And if there were an alien lunar plague, no

  • human had ever had it before, so it's kind of the same threat.

  • Which is why they took no chances and put them in quarantine.

  • It's a very blunt approach, but it's really interesting that that was kind of like, this

  • is our surest bet. They've developed the need for this quarantine,

  • and then they've got this problem of how to logistically make it happen, to get these

  • astronauts from the middle of the ocean all the way to the lunar receiving lab in Houston.

  • With no exposure to Earth's environment at all.

  • Yes. In theory. In theory.

  • Pete will be in the background. Hey Pete.

  • Hi Pete, nice to meet you. He saysmeow.” I gave him some catnip

  • so he's a little bit stoned right now, it's pretty fun.

  • Oh good. And so this first clip that I have is...let

  • me load it up. So what they're practicing is, they want

  • to get the astronauts out of the command module and onto a helicopter basically, with as little

  • contamination as possible to try to preserve this quarantine.

  • It makes sense that they had to train to do this, but it's still crazy to think about

  • it, that like you're going through this excitement of being about to go to the moon

  • and you're training for how you're gonna get into your quarantine suit.

  • But it does make sense, I mean, how bad would it be if the mission went off beautifully,

  • everything was great, rah rah America landing on the moon, and then they get back and they

  • forget to put on the suit right and, like, someone falls in the ocean and then everyone

  • gets sick. Like, womp womp, that'd be a big damper. So, I kinda get it.

  • It's actually from when they were training with the B.I.G. suits, or Big suits.

  • And that's the Biological Isolation Garment, right?

  • Yeah. I've only read it, so I don't know how

  • it was pronounced in conversation. It'd be way too cumbersome to not just say

  • Big Suit. I know right, especially NASA the land of

  • the acronym. So here they're all just kinda waiting to

  • go through the training. I do love how much all this footage shows,

  • like, being an astronaut is a lot of sitting and listening quietly.

  • Yeah. Yeah.

  • A lot of meetings. It looks like they brought it down upside

  • down too. Yeah, they dumped it upside down and then

  • inflated the balloons to flip it. And that flotation collar is exactly what

  • it sounds like, it adds buoyancy and gives them a platform to step out of. Because again,

  • we learned from Gus Grissom in 1961, right, when his hatch blew early, and the capsule

  • filled with water and sunk. You kinda need to give some kind of barrier from the water

  • rushing into this capsule, otherwise, again, you end on a very poor note after a great

  • mission. There's a very large issue that the whole

  • quarantine thing in this move of, like, you just opened the capsule.

  • Quarantine for Apollo 11 and Apollo 12 as well started the moment they closed the hatch

  • after the lunar EVA. The moonwalk. So everything that had been exposed was sealed up, and of

  • course on the way back, you're not opening the capsule at all, there's nothing to introduce

  • anything new, no one's interacting with it, so you've got this thing that's been

  • sealed for like four days and you just opened up the air and then reseal it. It's a bit

  • of a weak link in the chain there, but there was no better option.

  • They also, they sprayed them down, right, they threw the suits in, put them on, and

  • then sprayed them with chemicals. And so here that's them, they've gotten

  • out, they're wearing the B.I.G. suits, and this is just a practice run but this is pretty

  • much how it happened. And so then the next stage of their journey is, they're in their

  • B.I.G. suits and they make it onto the USS Hornet, which is a big aircraft carrier. And

  • their goal is to enter the Mobile Quarantine Facility, so that is the next video that I

  • have lined up here. That's why up here it says Hornet + 3 on

  • the Mobile Quarantine Facility because the astronauts are the additional three who are

  • on the Hornet. Oh wait, I think this is the clip when they

  • walk out in their suits, the guy just in a tie sprays it down after. I love that.

  • And so the people who went in there, it was a doctor, William Carpentier, and John Hiarasaki

  • who was the project engineer basically, and so those two guys are going inside and hanging

  • out with these astronauts for the entire period the Mobile Quarantine Facility is traveling.

  • According to this, all of the stuff that was not human would be flown directly to the Lunar

  • Receiving Lab. You know, the rocks were in these rock boxes that were very protected

  • and also sterile. You want to get that there as quickly as possible so that can be flown

  • in a small plane and flown from the carrier deck. The ship meanwhile has to go to a base,

  • it has to dock somewhere, at which point the MQF will be mobile (as it's named).

  • This very fancily named thing was just a converted Airstream trailer, so that gives you a sense

  • of how not big it was. Because they had to put it on a plane and

  • a ship and drive it around. The bottom of this plane opens and then you

  • just kind of roll this thing in and then you fly it to Houston.

  • Neil Armstrong played ukulele a bit, and there's a great picture of him. And I think it's

  • through the glass in that window that Nixon was talking to them through, because it's

  • got this ghostly artifact that gives it this ethereal feel almost, like he's just in

  • this little suit lowkey strumming the ukulele. About the MQF, they also adjusted the air

  • pressure right, so it'd be lower pressure inside, so if there was a leak, air would

  • go in and not out. And they've got these souped up bars on

  • the bottom, rightthey ditched the wheels and they had to reinforce it structurally.

  • Oh and they had a microwavewhich is very new in 1969, that's like a high tech innovation.

  • Nice. The Mini-Fridge. This is looking a bit like a college dorm room right now.

  • Exactly. They're landing at the Lunar Receiving Laboratory

  • or LRL, which is in Houston, it was specially built near what is now the Johnson Space Center

  • that was like one of the most state of the art quarantineable facilities. Even the staff

  • that went in had to go through UV showers and you could not have any medical thingyou

  • could not be pregnant to work in thereeverything was super sterile. Anyone that was interacting

  • with the crew had to be very clean and healthy to make sure that the crew did not get sick

  • but also that they did not get you sick. Is this the press room? Right here? Where

  • they're celebrating his birthday? I think that's the press room. So you can

  • see it looks like on the other side of the wall are a bunch of women, so probably the

  • wives and family. So they can be there and celebrate but they can't actually be in

  • the same space. But on this side of the glass, where we are watching from is the clean facility,

  • and this is where they are celebrating Neil Armstrong's 39th birthday, because he was

  • still in quarantine when that happened. This is so cute, I've never actually seen

  • this footage of them making the cake, I've seen him cutting and serving the cakethis

  • is awesome. If there was found to be something potentially

  • bad in one of the samples or the crew got sick and there was some containment breach

  • of the sick party, everyone who worked in the LRL signed a waiver saying they agreed

  • that if they were exposed to a contaminant, they would quarantine themselves for an indefinite

  • period afterwards as directed by NASA. There's a lot in thisin the medical

  • offices, there's a lot of beds. There's a lot of tables and things in the offices

  • and living space. That's a lot of people and the second diagram shows you that's

  • a third of the area of the entire LRL. That's a big space for a lot of people to live and

  • work. In addition to the quarantine of the astronauts,

  • what kind of experiments are going on in the other half of the Lunar Receiving Lab?

  • A lot of the experiments they were doing were looking at the rocks, classifying the rocks,

  • bio-classifying if need be to figure out exactly what they had gotten and figure out what's

  • going to happen with these samples next. I think Apollo 11 didn't bring back too too

  • much because they only did one short EVAlater missions brought back a lot more.

  • And so, I found some pretty crazy tables of some of the tests that they did on the biological

  • elements. I'm gonna tell you all this, one of the

  • experiments they did was they ground up some moon rocks, made a formula out of it and injected

  • it into a Japanese Quail. What? Why?

  • Why? Just to see if it made the bird sick.

  • Like, why? Were they gonna do that to humans? Did they think moon rock dust was gonna be

  • the new street drug? Right. All the kids are on moon dust.

  • I think that's pretty much what they did to the mice too...um….

  • They spend their time in the Lunar Receiving Lab, they don't have a moon plague

  • They don't die — — they don't have a lunar plague. They

  • don't have a moon bug. They get out, they go on this world tour, everything's fine.

  • Hip hip hooray. Is there anything about the Apollo 11 quarantine,

  • either procedurally or the context of how people were feeling about it at the time that

  • we didn't talk about? Um.

  • How much NASA learned over its relatively short existence before Apollo 11's launch

  • to anticipate the worst and hope for the best. Anticipating the crew dying at launch, anticipating

  • the crew dying, I mean there were abort procedures for every mission stage, there were speeches

  • for if they died on the moon, down to what do we do if they pick up something deadly

  • in space. I think it really speaks to how many people have to be involved to predict

  • or prepare for something like this. It speaks to how well NASA really thought outside the

  • box, especially after the Apollo 1 fire to anticipate everything that could possibly

  • go wrong and put everything in place to mitigate that, so that if the worst happened they would

  • at least be the best prepared. The LRL was built purposely for bringing them back from

  • the moon. It was not just likeLet's outfit this building,” it was a custom facility

  • for this need. And it's a lot of planning and a lot of preparation. And a lot of acknowledging

  • just how bad things could be to hopefully never have to get there.

  • People find you on YouTube and you've also released a book. What is that about?

  • It's called Fighting for Space, I always have to read my own subtitle, two pilots and

  • their historic battle for female space flight, and it's effectively a dual biography of

  • two pilots who were navigating being professional fliers at a time when it was not common for

  • women to be professional fliers while America was making the transition from aviation to

  • spaceflight and what that meant for the women who wanted to be involved.

Zero, all engines running. We have a liftoff. One small step for man…”

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NASAがアポロ11号の宇宙飛行士を隔離した理由 (Why NASA quarantined the Apollo 11 astronauts)

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    Winnie Liao に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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