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  • - [Instructor] Hello readers, let's talk about poems.

  • Poetry is a special kind of writing.

  • If ordinary writing is like talking,

  • then poetry is like singing.

  • Poetry is a way of making art with language.

  • Poems can express huge ideas or feelings

  • that can be about the sound or rhythm of language.

  • Or they can be goofy little jokes.

  • It's like any other kind of writing.

  • Poems can be about everything

  • or they can be about nothing at all.

  • They can be funny or sad, or sweet.

  • They can rhyme.

  • They can very much not rhyme.

  • And all of that is, in my opinion, absolutely wonderful.

  • I think of some poems as condensed ideas

  • that contain a lot of ideas in small amounts of text.

  • So every word matters a lot.

  • Those are little light bulbs representing ideas.

  • So I'm gonna look at a couple of poems today

  • in order to describe some parts of a poem.

  • Let's begin with the poem, Cat by Marilyn Singer.

  • Goes like this.

  • Cat, I prefer warm fur,

  • a perfect fire to lie beside,

  • a cozy lap where I can nap,

  • an empty chair when she's not there.

  • I want heat on my feet,

  • on my nose, on my hide.

  • No cat I remember dislikes December inside.

  • So, the person who wrote this poem, Marilyn Singer

  • is the poet.

  • For stories, the person who writes the poem

  • is an author, but for poems, the writer is a poet.

  • But who is telling the poem, who's speaking?

  • The person whose voice we hear in a poem

  • is called the speaker.

  • Which is another thing I like about poetry.

  • When you're having trouble understanding a poem,

  • read it aloud.

  • Part of the pleasure of poetry, for me,

  • is hearing the words bounce around as you say them.

  • And in this poem, I'm pretty sure the speaker is a cat.

  • Now you'll notice there are only three sentences

  • in this poem, but they're separated in to 15 lines.

  • You can see these lines have anywhere

  • from one to four words in them.

  • Lines can be as long or as short as a poet likes.

  • But here the poet is creating these line breaks

  • to indicate pauses and rhythms.

  • Right, like, normally we wouldn't start

  • a new line here if this were prose,

  • which is what we call all other forms of writing.

  • Prose uses normal sentences and paragraphs.

  • Right, the poet is choosing to create line breaks

  • in order to change the way the sentence

  • or the line looks on the page.

  • Poetry's not just about how it sounds.

  • Sometimes it's about how it looks as it's written.

  • Now, in addition, the poet is also using spaces

  • to scoot these three phrases over,

  • as well as this word, inside.

  • The words themselves are scooted in.

  • They're curled up and feeling cozy.

  • Like a cat by a fire in the middle of December.

  • You'll also notice that some, but not all

  • of the lines rhyme with each other.

  • And let's take a moment to think for a second,

  • what is rhyming, really?

  • One way to think about it is when the ending sound

  • of a word matches the other ending sound of a word,

  • like lap and nap.

  • Or when a bunch of sounds match each other

  • throughout a pair of words like remember and December.

  • I wanna be super clear about this part,

  • because I was already out of high school

  • before I learned this thing.

  • But, poems don't have to rhyme.

  • They can, but they definitely don't have to.

  • I have one more poem part to describe to you.

  • And to do it, I wanna use Billy Collins poem, Litany.

  • Which sounds like a fancy poem at first,

  • but then becomes much more conversational.

  • I'll end by reading the first three stanzas,

  • which are these paragraph-looking things.

  • Not all poems are broken in to stanzas,

  • but this one is.

  • So, those are some parts of the poem.

  • To review, a poet writes lines.

  • The place where each line ends is called a line break.

  • And a group of lines together in a paragraph

  • is called a stanza.

  • The voice that tells us the poem, the poem's narrator,

  • is called the speaker.

  • Some poems rhyme, others don't; cool.

  • Here's a snippet of Litany by Billy Collins.

  • Litany; you are the bread and the knife,

  • the crystal goblet and the wine.

  • You are the dew on the morning grass

  • and the burning wheel of the sun.

  • You are the white apron of the baker,

  • and the marsh birds suddenly in flight.

  • However, you are not the wind in the orchard,

  • the plums on the counter,

  • or the house of cards.

  • And you are certainly not the pine-scented air.

  • There was just no way that you are the pine-scented air.

  • It is possible that you are the fish under the bridge,

  • maybe even the pigeon on the general's head,

  • but you are not even close

  • to being the field of cornflowers at dusk.

  • There's more, but I'd love it if you looked it up

  • and read it aloud yourself.

  • You can learn anything; David, out.

- [Instructor] Hello readers, let's talk about poems.

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詩の要素|読み方|カーンアカデミー (The elements of a poem | Reading | Khan Academy)

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    林宜悉 に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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