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  • Thank you.

  • So I thought I'd start tonight with a little experiment.

  • I'm gonna put two words on the screen.

  • And don't over think I'm just What terms come to mind.

  • Okay.

  • You ready?

  • All right.

  • Yes, The media.

  • So, how many people raise your hand?

  • How many people have negative thoughts going through their head right now?

  • Yes.

  • A lot of you.

  • That's okay.

  • Yeah.

  • You know, And that's not surprising, because we hear so many negative terms about the media.

  • Fake news.

  • Biased slant.

  • Slanderous.

  • Right.

  • So slanted.

  • So that doesn't surprise me.

  • What about the rest of you?

  • Anyone?

  • Had anyone have any positive thoughts about the media?

  • A few good.

  • Good.

  • Ah, little bit.

  • So I You know, when I think of the media, I think of terms like objective, accurate watchdogs of society.

  • And that's probably because on and all transparency, I used to work in the media.

  • All right.

  • It's a newspaper reporter years ago.

  • I now teach at Penn State Harrisburg.

  • I teach the future journalists of tomorrow, so I do still have faith in the media.

  • But I know a lot of people do not agree with me.

  • And how do I knew that.

  • Well, I did my research.

  • I saw an article in the Columbia Journalism Review that just a year ago they were interviewing people about the media.

  • So the 1st 1 they said it was Ah, um, that Knight Foundation Gallup Poll.

  • They just asked, Do you trust the media?

  • 30% of those that were interviewed said no.

  • Not only that, that same 30% actually said that that distrust was probably permanent.

  • There was nothing that they could do to get their trust back.

  • So that did you?

  • No, shock me a little bit.

  • But then I saw another Gallup poll of the same year.

  • They asked people to rank major institutions from most trustworthy, the least trustworthy.

  • The television news media came in second to last.

  • Can anyone guess who was last Congress?

  • Yup.

  • So but yeah, this was shocking to me because I still have faith in the media, and it's because of my experiences in the media.

  • So I started thinking, You know, our theme here Tonight's chaos, right?

  • Where do you go in times of chaos?

  • And I thought, Whether you trust or distrust the media, you probably turn to them in times of chaos.

  • So I started thinking back in my own life what tragic events have occurred in my life where I turned to the media and automatically the first thing that came to my mind was 9 11 So if you're like me, I remember exactly where I was.

  • When I found out about 9 11 I was actually working at a state association right down the street in Harrisburg.

  • I was meeting with our insurance director.

  • I remember that, and one of our co workers came in and told us that one of the planes hit the towers.

  • So what did we D'oh!

  • We went up to the conference room.

  • We sat in front of a television set and we watched.

  • We watched live as that second plane hit the second tower.

  • We watched live as the smaller towers came crumbling down.

  • And from what I remember that day, the media, they actually did a really good job.

  • They didn't sensationalize the story.

  • They didn't try to race to find out who attacked us.

  • They simply reported the facts that day.

  • But I'm a realist, and I know that's not always the case, so I started thinking, all right, What other things in my life have I gone, too, for the media?

  • And the next thing I thought of was a sandy hook shootings.

  • So again remember exactly where I was that day.

  • I was at home actually feeding my infant daughter watching CNN and CNN started reporting on Sandy Hook, and they were reporting.

  • They didn't know yet what it was, but all of a sudden they had the shooter.

  • They reported Ryan Lanza was the shooter at Sandy Hook.

  • So this time, though, I didn't just have TV.

  • I had my laptop.

  • I had computer.

  • I had Facebook, you know, Now we had social media.

  • I could go on and talk to people.

  • Oh, my God, what's going on?

  • And then, all of a sudden, I started flipping through the channels, and this is what I saw Ryan Lanza on CBS.

  • So then I went onto my computer and same thing.

  • Fox News.

  • Gawker Buzzfeed, Huntington Post.

  • Having composed, they all found Ryan Lanza's Facebook page, and they actually link to the Facebook page.

  • His face was everywhere, so there was just one problem, Though Ryan Lanza was not the shooter of Sandy Hook, it was his brother Adam Lanza, that did this horrific crime.

  • Now I did read on.

  • Associated Press article later said that a law enforcement official had transposed the brothers names because when they found Adam Lanza's body, he had his brother's I D.

  • On him.

  • But that doesn't matter.

  • It's the media's job to report accurate information.

  • It's the media's job to get it right, and the media failed.

  • That day, the media created more chaos for a young man who lost his brother and his mom in one day.

  • So so.

  • Yet the media failed.

  • And this is what I study.

  • So I study the media, and I remember when I was a Temple University getting my PhD, I met a no older man who lived in New York, Pennsylvania.

  • He told me about a chaotic event in his life.

  • He lived through what was called the 1969 Your Grace rides.

  • I couldn't believe that this story was it was like a movie, I literally said to him, I said, You have given me my dissertation topic.

  • Thank you.

  • I had to know how the media told this story, so I started looking at it.

  • And if anyone doesn't know, if you don't know what happened, I'll just give you a brief overview.

  • In summer, in 1969 there was a young 12 year old African American boy.

  • He was placing lighter fluid in his mouth.

  • I know, and was trying to spit it out and light it to cause a stream of flames.

  • Well, he failed us miserably.

  • And when being interviewed by your police, he lied.

  • He told the police that a white gang named the Gerard Er's doused him with gasoline and set him on fire.

  • So that night that ah, the rumor spread, Yes, pardon the pun like wildfire through the streets and a black gang seeking retribution for that perceived crime went looking for the drawer orders, and instead they came across another white gang, the Newbury Street Boys.

  • So a fight ensued, and that was the beginning of 12 days of violence.

  • So over the next 12 days, more than 60 people were injured.

  • More than 100 individuals were arrested and two individuals lost their lives.

  • A 22 year old white police officer, Henry Schaad, and a 27 year old African American woman from taken South Carolina, Lillie Belle Allen.

  • So my question was, How did the media D'oh and I had this hypothesis Because I have learned in my journalism classes the media in the 19 sixties WAAS mostly run by middle aged white males.

  • Diversity in the media media would not happen for gender and race until years later.

  • So I thought I'd find a bias.

  • But happily, I was wrong.

  • The York media actually did a really good job, and I thought it was because, you know, they didn't just blame one group.

  • They didn't blame one event.

  • Now they did.

  • They talked about the the rumors.

  • They talked about the infighting of the gangs, the murders.

  • But they went deeper.

  • They knew the violence in York was years in the making, decades in the making.

  • They knew that the inequalities between blacks and whites with housing, education, employment, recreational area, horrible police misconduct that fueled the anger that led to the $1969 race rights.

  • Now was the media perfect?

  • No.

  • Like I said, no institution is For example, I remember seeing this.

  • This was this was on in the newspaper on July 24th 1969.

  • So if you look at it.

  • You can see that they are reporting that a raid happened.

  • Nine guns were taken.

  • And they specifically say what race of the area they specifically say is in a black area and a first apply doesn't really mean anything.

  • But when I found this photo the very next day, it says Gun seized on north Newbury Street, North Newbury Street was known as a predominantly white area.

  • Yet the race is not listed.

  • Not only that, remember the white gang, the Newbury Street Boys I had mentioned earlier.

  • The leader of that gang lived in that house.

  • More guns and Emmy ammunition were found in his one house than in the entire black area.

  • Yet the race of him and the area was buried in an article.

  • So it was the York media Perfect?

  • No, but I still thought they did a really good job.

  • All right, so I fast for then, 30 years later, the same to York newspapers decide to do commemorations off the 30 year anniversary of the York race rides because that's what media dio We like to commemorate things.

  • And they did a really good job, too.

  • They did their research.

  • They talked about the rumor, talked about the gang fights, talked about the two lives that were lost.

  • But what was interesting.

  • These articles did not just tell this story to new audiences.

  • They actually helped initiate the reopening of the Allen and shod murder trials.

  • So in 2000 people started being interviewed by law enforcement, and in 2001 11 white men would be arrested for the murder of Lillie Belle Allen.

  • In 2000 to 2 black men would be arrested and convicted for the murder of shod.

  • And this is where things where the media started to create more chaos and not just cover it.

  • You see, one of the 11 white men that were arrested that summer was the then mayor of York Mayor Charles Robertson.

  • You see, in 1969 he was a police officer, and there were rumors going around mostly from the gangs, that he was at a white rally, and he handed out ammunition to the white gangs that could have been used to murder Alan.

  • So and what happened was, though weeks before he was arrested almost a month before he was arrested, the media just reported on rumors they painted him as a racist, guilty individual weeks and weeks before he was arrested.

  • Now don't get me wrong.

  • I'm not saying that this story is not newsworthy.

  • In fact, when I teach journalism, I show my students all of these issues that will make a story newsworthy.

  • You need at least one.

  • His story hits him all.

  • So yes is definitely a newsworthy story.

  • But the incessant reporting, the sensationalistic reporting really did ruin his political career.

  • So by the end of the year, the leader of the Gerard hers and the leader of the Newbury Street Boys they were actually the ones that ended up being convicted of the murder of Lillie Belle Allen.

  • Mayor Robertson.

  • He was acquitted of all crimes in September, but his life was ruined.

  • His life turned into his own realm of chaos.

  • So where are we today?

  • I talked a lot about the past, but what's our media scholars like myself looking at?

  • What are we looking at today when it comes to the media and chaos?

  • And I found this UC Berkeley article A lot of scholars today are looking at how do the media cover mass shootings?

  • And I thought This was really interesting because they were saying Net when the media cover mass shootings, they might actually perpetuate or encourage future mass shooters.

  • So this leaves me my first takeaway for everyone.

  • Media alert, media literacy.

  • We need to evaluate our sources.

  • We are constantly bombarded with information we need to make sure our sources are credible.

  • We need to make sure the sources are sources are using our credible.

  • So that's what I did.

  • So I look to see what is u C Berkeley using to tell us that the media might perpetuate mass shootings.

  • And I found it.

  • They actually used this journal article right here from last year.

  • I researched Michael Jeter and Jay Walker.

  • They are respected in their field.

  • And yes, they looked at ABC News from 2013 to 2016.

  • And they, too, said that if the media glorified mass shootings, they might actually be encouraging future mass shooters.

  • So I'm going to do more research on this, and this leads me to my second takeaway tonight is Please don't help create more chaos.

  • I'm not going to go to Facebook and start saying the media cause mass shootings.

  • No, I'm not going to do that.

  • I'm not going to start tweeting about it.

  • I'm not going to go to social Media and start spreading something that might be misinformation.

  • And that's what I implore for.

  • Everyone is, you know, if you see fake news and misinformation, don't create more chaos by publishing it.

  • And if the media are creating chaos, let's not help them.

  • Let's not use the Internet social media to create more chaos.

  • So you know, to end this.

  • That's what I was thinking about when I thought about those surveys in the beginning.

  • I believe in the media.

  • I am not going to be part of that 30% that I mentioned in the beginning of people that distrust the media.

  • I believe in the importance the media has to give us correct, accurate information.

  • I believe in the role media place as being our watchdogs of society.

  • But I also believe that the media should stick to covering chaos and not create more casts.

Thank you.

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メディア。カオスをカバーするか、カオスを引き起こすか|ステファニー・モロー|TEDxHarrisburg (The Media: Covering Chaos Or Causing Chaos | Stephanie Morrow | TEDxHarrisburg)

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    林宜悉 に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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