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  • This is a teach pendant, and traditionally,

  • it's how you teach a robot arm to do something.

  • It's awkward.

  • Two of the problems with programming robots the traditional way

  • are that you need to tell it exactly what you want it to do,

  • point to point.

  • The other is that the robot assumes that nothing changes.

  • You just manually drive the tip of the robot

  • to where you know you need it to go

  • and then hit 'record,' and remember that point,

  • then you drive it over to the other place and hit 'record,'

  • and remember that point, and then, when you play,

  • it goes from one point to the next.

  • And it can do that over, and over, and over again.

  • In the event that there is some error or something moves,

  • the robot has no way of knowing that.

  • The robot will still go exactly where you told it to go the first time,

  • and that can result in a crash, or breaking something,

  • or injuring a person. It's just like any computer.

  • It will do exactly what you ask it to do,

  • even if that's not what you meant!

  • In the early days of computers,

  • writing code generally meant using what's called 'assembly language'.

  • You would have to literally tell the processor

  • to move things from one memory address to another,

  • or to tweak some values,

  • or to change specific pixels on the screen.

  • Like giving instructions to this arm,

  • you would be telling the chip every single thing that it had to do.

  • As time moved on, programmers got higher level languages.

  • Write some words and some brackets,

  • the system works out the boring details for you.

  • If you've ever worked with a spreadsheet, then that counts.

  • Writing a formula in Excel, that's enough.

  • In the end, sure, it all gets converted to assembly language.

  • For most programmers, they never even have to think about it.

  • The team here at Autodesk's Pier 9 in San Francisco are

  • working on more or less the same thing,

  • just for making physical things.

  • Basically, the biggest robot that we have in the lab,

  • which we call 'Ash,' is essentially a big,

  • robotic 3D printer that's printing in stainless steel.

  • We have a MIG welder that is depositing stainless steel onto a metal plate.

  • By activating the MIG welder while moving the robot, we're building a weld bead,

  • and then we're building beads on top of each other.

  • You would typically use welding to stitch two pieces of metal together.

  • What we're doing is using the same technology,

  • but stacking the metal on top

  • in order to produce a separate piece of finished material.

  • Now, ultimately, the result is the same.

  • The motors in the robot arm are told, “move this way.”

  • It's just that human's original instructions are a bit more abstract,

  • and they're filtered through another couple of layers.

  • Using a teach pendant would be pretty impractical for these complex curves.

  • Normal 3D printers do basically 2½D.

  • They go to an X and a Y, and then up and down.

  • This robot can point in various directions.

  • The robot needs to know not only where it is,

  • but how it should point when it gets there.

  • We give it a piece of geometry,

  • and the software figures out the instructions set for the robot

  • that will result in a print, that is what we want.

  • One of the things we're developing is a closed loop feedback system,

  • where the robot is actually aware of what it's doing.

  • Before it completely fails a print,

  • it's keeping track of the quality of the print that it's doing.

  • It will actually correct, reprogram itself in real time,

  • in order to avoid an actual failure.

  • What we're working on is a vision system,

  • where between vision and a couple of other sensors,

  • we can monitor and supervise the status of the prints.

  • If the welder runs out of wire, or if something else happens,

  • the robot would traditionally have no way of knowing.

  • Now, the robot can know that.

  • Not all the robot's movements are being directly controlled by a person.

  • If it goes wrong, it's a bit different

  • than just having an error message pop up.

  • This arm here weighs two tonnes,

  • and when it wants to, it moves fast.

  • The only reason I'm allowed this close is because

  • I'm literally holding the emergency stop button in my hand,

  • just in case.

  • Our robot currently has no way of sensing us. What currently happens is

  • when a person that shouldn't be near a robot gets close to the robot,

  • you shut everything down.

  • It would be great, and we're interested in a future

  • where the robot can know that person is there,

  • with vision or some other kinds of sensing,

  • and then actively avoid that person,

  • and continue doing what it's doing.

  • Self driving cars, hospital heart monitors,

  • basically everything electronic: ultimately,

  • the code in it is just 1s and 0s.

  • The more levels of abstraction between the programmer and the bare metal,

  • the easier it is to write code,

  • but when something goes wrong,

  • fixing it might be out of your hands.

  • Thank you very much to all the team at Autodesk,

  • and to their applied research lab,

  • here at Pier 9 in San Francisco.

  • Go and check out their YouTube channel,

  • or pull down the description for some links to see the amazing projects they're working on.

This is a teach pendant, and traditionally,

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B1 中級

巨大なロボットの腕を持つステンレス鋼を3D印刷 (3D Printing Stainless Steel with Giant Robot Arms)

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    林宜悉 に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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