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  • the last major science work that came from the Large Hadron Collider the Clyde have finished in 2012 did pretty well.

  • Higgs, Higgs buzz UN emerged and is rightfully given Nobel Prizes to glare and Higgs himself, event since 2012 in shutdown on Basically, I think it's like building a new machine again.

  • The all the detectors have been revamped, the LFC itself.

  • All the magnets have been tested and connections between the magnets tested.

  • They've put in new systems to try and guarantee that when the beam goes around, it doesn't stray off and cause quenches they're about ready to go, ready to rock and roll.

  • It's run, too.

  • Yeah, on this run, we should go for a few years now.

  • The run one, which was the run from 2010 to 2012.

  • They managed to get the beam energy up to for TV per beams or a TV where they collide in the the detectors now that managing to get up to 6.5 TV for beams or 13 TV collision.

  • So that's what 40 or 50% increase in energy With that comes all sorts of benefits and Also they've managed.

  • They're hoping to increase what's known as a luminosity.

  • The number of collisions per second that will be detected has gone from something like, if I remember my numbers right from before 602nd up to over a 1,000,000,000 a second now.

  • So you've got many more collisions at much higher energies.

  • That means you're potentially probing a new region of the energy space.

  • If that's available to create new particles caused, the key thing that they will initially be trying to do is make sure that they've understood the hicks, the Higgs field itself, which is the field that's responsible for the masses of the fundamental particles.

  • We've discovered the Higgs, but it's like going into a gold mine of finding a nugget of gold you want.

  • Then just leave it there and take it home and say, That's it.

  • You're now going to try and explore all the properties you know about Higgs on DSO.

  • One of the big questions would be is the Higgs that we see.

  • The only Higgs are there other Higgs particles that might be that there might be there that come from beyond the standard model of particle physics.

  • Or if there aren't, then can we test the Higgs That's there to such a degree that we think we know what?

  • How it should decay with the standard model.

  • So we can, by looking at more and more events of the Higgs decaying, we can actually test, you know, too much more precision.

  • Whether or not the standard models fitting the debtor run one gave us the Higgs.

  • So presumably the energy levels were right.

  • We hit the sweet spot that we needed to be smashing at the right powers and spades to tell us the Higgs now that they're juicing it up and smashing, things even heard.

  • But they're not moving away from that sweets, and I know it will include that spot.

  • It's is that they just got much more energy to a TV.

  • Was enough energy there to actually produce a Higgs Higgs decay rapidly to tend to the miners 20 seconds or so they've gone again on what you pick up is the debris of the decay.

  • So perhaps one of the most clear cut signs that they found was a pair of foot on the shooting out, and four Lipton's coming out by looking at the distribution of those on the number of those, they were able to say This has come from the Higgs.

  • Well, having even more energy just means it's easier to produce these hicks, so you'd expect you're gonna produce even more of them because there's old of this extra energy there that can reduce the Higgs.

  • But what it also has potentially is imagine there's a Higgs that at a TV we couldn't produce, we didn't have enough energy to produce that Higgs that might be coming from, say, a supersymmetric extension of the standard model of some extension.

  • Then, with a bit of luck with 13 TV, maybe we just enter that regime where occasionally we can produce those Higgs on.

  • We'll look for the decay of those as well.

  • For me, it's really an incredible singing that it happened in my lifetime.

  • If there's one, then we have a riel issue, which I don't think we've touched on and you don't hear very much about.

  • It's called the hierarchy problem.

  • There are difference mass scales that we experience in physics.

  • The Higgs has got the massive 125 g v.

  • Okay, that's that's the master.

  • We couldn't predict it, but that's what it came out to be.

  • 100 25 point something.

  • Now there's another natural mass scale in physics which is associate with the plank scale.

  • Now, where is the Higgs scale of 125 g ve?

  • The plank scale is about 10 to the 18 g b.

  • We don't really understand is why nature has done this.

  • It corresponds a natural fact to the fact that the the electoral weak force, the weak force is something like 10 to the 32 times stronger than the force of gravity.

  • Why is the force of gravity so small compared to the elect to the weak force?

  • Or another way of saying is, why is the mass associate ID with the Higgs particle so much smaller than the natural plank scale which is a the mass.

  • You associate up the the gravitational scan.

  • But why that is a problem is that we expect these two to couple.

  • We know the Higgs has mass.

  • It couples through gravity, everything couples through gravity, and it gets influenced by the massive of of this heavy particle to such an extent that actually you expect the mass of the Higgs to rise and rise and rise and rise and rise until it becomes comparable to the heavy mass scale.

  • The fact we don't see that the fact that there is only this one Higgs we see that has this mass is why is it like that?

  • How come it's mass hasn't gone up to this ultra high scale?

  • A single Higgs by itself?

  • I can't explain it.

  • We don't have a nice mechanism to do it.

  • So this is one of the key reasons why people have gone beyond the standard model.

  • They've introduced ideas which will actually mean that the natural rise of this mass is stopped.

  • The most well known example of this is supersymmetry.

  • So what happens with supersymmetry is when all the firm eons, the electrons, the protest was etcetera.

  • Hold the quarks start coupling in on interacting with Higgs and being driven up, driving the Higgs upto higher and higher scales throughout their interactions with gravity.

  • Then what you actually do is you introduce a new set of particles.

  • The supersymmetric partners of all of these electrons and quarks on there come in in such whether they actually cancel off all of these contributions.

  • They exactly cancel them off.

  • So as long as supersymmetry holds, these contributions get counseled off.

  • So all of its rising in the effective mass of the Higgs gets gets brought down again because every rise due to say in the electron gets actually compensated by by this Solectron.

  • It's supersymmetric partner, and it brings it back down.

  • And this is a way of then stabilizing the mass of the Higgs.

  • But the profit is it may not be a problem.

  • With a bit of luck, the Alexi will find something We haven't seen any evidence yet of supersymmetry.

  • Right?

  • The what we found is all perfectly consistent with the standard model.

  • So one of the things we've we've already established by the fact that we haven't seen any evidence of these supersymmetric particles that moment that already put a lower bound on the mass that these particles can have.

  • We're We've already reached energy scales of a TV also, which means that the supersymmetric particles must have masses at least above that energy scale.

  • Remember, E equals M.

  • C squared.

  • The idea that we're doing here is that were colliding the protons, the protons are annihilating on the energy that's released is then sort of re distributed into new particles.

  • Somehow all that energy could get redistributed into a pair of supersymmetric particles.

  • Then we know that that that pair would have to have a mass of order at least of order a TV or so otherwise, we would have already seen them.

  • They would have already been enough energy in the collision and that there isn't.

  • So we have to go to higher energies in order to be able to hopefully probe the regime where these heavier particles are existing.

  • So as long as the heavier particles aren't too heavy compared to the 13.5 TV, then we should be able to produce them.

  • So what happens?

  • Petabytes of data comes out.

  • It goes down these cables.

  • Here it goes all the way out.

  • It goes downstairs, and it goes into this room that's full of electronics.

  • The electronics brings it all in and filters.

  • It makes very fast decision and says, I like that I don't like that and it throws away.

  • The vast majority of it really makes you feel like you're really in the heart of this machine.

  • now, of course, we're still now.

  • You won't be able to stand when this thing's on too much radiation flying around too many particles.

the last major science work that came from the Large Hadron Collider the Clyde have finished in 2012 did pretty well.

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大型ハドロン衝突型加速器で何をするか? (What's left to do at the Large Hadron Collider?)

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    林宜悉 に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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