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  • There's this popular program calledStranger Thingson TV and

  • as a fan and as a physicist I've come up with a theory and just forewarning there's gonna be some spoilers

  • In Stranger Things, one of the characters, Will, gets trapped in this sort of parallel universe

  • called the Upside Down and when he's trapped there his mom is you know really worried about him

  • But she figures out that he's not missing and that actually she can communicate with him when he's in this

  • parallel universe and she does it by

  • Stringing up some Christmas lights on the wall and under each light bulb she writes a letter and so from this parallel universe

  • The kid manages to light a light bulb above a letter and spell out a message to his mom

  • Yeah, basically, and so I was thinking as a physicist

  • How is this even possible? How does one communicate from a whole other universe to our universe in 1983?

  • And so I've come up with this theorythis physics fan theoryand I think that this is possible if

  • this parallel universe called the upside down is quantumly entangled with our universe.

  • I guess we've got to understand quantum entanglement first. First of all you've got to get rid of everything that you know about the classical world

  • so in the classical world this

  • Is a red ball, and it will always be a red ball

  • similarly, this is a blue ball, and this will always be a blue ball, and if I sort of

  • Shuffled them around and hold one in either hand

  • When I say to you you know, which one is the red ball, and which one is the blue ball

  • We know that one of them is definitely red and one of them is definitely blue and so it's only when I open my hand

  • And say okay, that was the blue ball

  • And there was the red ball that we knew all along that this was blue, and this was red

  • but one of them is always blue and one of them is always red.

  • If this was the quantum world and you couldn't tell which one was red or which was blue

  • they would both be red and blue at the same time.

  • So this is like the Schrodinger's cat examplethe cat is both dead and alive at the same time.

  • [Brady:] They both purple?

  • They're both purpleyes, they are!

  • So there's some sort of weird linear superposition of red and blue in the quantum world

  • and it's only when we again we open the hand and we see that this one is blue

  • that we know this one is red. But before that, they were both.

  • So if we have two quantumly entangled particles instead

  • in this weird quantum mechanical world these can have sort of any properties so what I was doing there was this color was

  • an analogy for spin, basically

  • or some property of the particle so spin up and spin down and that is a very fundamental

  • property of particles and so if we have these

  • Quantumly entangled particles they don't have any spin yet, they do have spin

  • It's just that you can't describe one without describing the other okay

  • So they're in this weird superposition state where they can be both spin up and spin down

  • But the thing about quantumly entangled particles is that as soon as you measure them and one becomes spin up

  • the other one immediately becomes spin down

  • so whatever one of them does, the other one has to do the exact opposite, and that's what quantum entanglement is.

  • Poor Will trapped in this parallel universe if this entire universe

  • Was quantumly entangled with our universe then anything that Will does in the parallel universe

  • has to be reflected in our universe as well: the particles have to do the exact opposite

  • so say Will could take the light bulb in the parallel universe of the upside down and

  • Put a battery to it and force the electrons in that light bulb to move around a circuit

  • he would have given them momentum in a direction and

  • Therefore the particles in our universe would have to do the exact opposite does that mean they would also have to have momentum

  • But in the opposite direction and therefore also

  • Move around a circuit and therefore light up a light bulb so if he lit up a light bulb in his universe the light bulb

  • Would also light up in our universe

  • Himself

  • Wouldn't that when he moves the battery wouldn't the

  • No this is where this sort of theory is a little bit like we're gonna have to think about this

  • I mean I'm also assuming

  • That you know these light bulbs are in parallel you know they're not in series in their in their circuit

  • They're in parallel. I mean this is 1983. They could be in series

  • I don't know. This is the kind of thing that you have to achieve all the way you go through this theory

  • The electrons in his he'll be able to manipulate electrons in the other exactly through quantum entanglement, that's my theory

  • Would you like to hear how this theory is absolutely rubbish so there are many problems

  • But so as a scientist. I had to think through these problems and go through them the first question

  • I had was easy even possible to make a quantum Leontine board universe okay, so that just seems ridiculous in my head

  • Turned out not so ridiculous

  • So I actually found a paper quantum entanglement in the multiverse and this is you know a theoretical paper

  • but they're actually talking about it as if

  • we could measure whether this has actually happened in our own universe so what they're saying is if

  • Our universe is one of many and the multiverse theory holds that there are many many universes then after the Big Bang

  • Ten to the minus thirty-six seconds after the Big Bang to be precise there was this period of time called inflation where the universe

  • rapidly

  • inflated in the space of sort of from ten to the minus

  • Thirty-six to sort of like ten to the minus thirty-three seconds so a very very short space of time

  • inflated very rapidly and that has like loads of

  • consequences on sort of how the universe is today because any sort of teeny tiny fluctuations

  • And the particles that were created just after the Big Bang were sort of locked in so density

  • Fluctuations anything like that will then spread out over these huge

  • Distances and that meant that then some areas of the universe more dense than the others and that's how you ended up getting

  • galaxies forming their eccentric cetera so they're saying if you have inflation in the multiverse and you're creating sort of child

  • universes from say our parent universe so lots of

  • Multiverses are sort of springing off and you have inflation then the same properties are going to be

  • Imprinted in one universe as in the child universe as well like in identical twins

  • So that's what inflation would do it would imprint both those things

  • And if you had two particles that work in these quantum the entanglement state in the beginning

  • Then they will be quantum entangled in these two separate universes and the really cool thing about this paper is that they suggest that actually?

  • If this was true in our universe. You'd actually be able to test whether that was true because these kind of quantum entanglement

  • Fluctuations, that would be imprinted in inflation you'd still be able to see in what's called the Cosmic Microwave Background which is this?

  • Microwave signal which is a remnant of the bang in the very early stages of the universe?

  • Where light could first escape from the early stage in the universe so I?

  • Think that's really exciting and the fact that my crazy fan

  • Theory could actually you know in our own universe could exist I was like that was that was one point to me

  • That's one point. There is another problem, and it's something called quantum decoherence

  • if you have two quantum entangled particles

  • And you want to send a message between the two of them say you're doing it for like encryption or something and you move

  • One particle say you know 300 miles away and measure

  • One thing to have a certain span of momentum and therefore the other one has to do the exact opposite

  • This is what Einstein was really concerned about you were there for

  • Sending a message faster than the speed of light because as soon as this one is measured this one

  • Automatically changes and so that is sort of this spooky action at a distance and we know that things

  • Can't travel faster than the speed of light people have got around that now by saying well

  • I had to physically move this 300 miles away first to send that message

  • And I couldn't have made that travel faster than the speed of light

  • Therefore the message itself didn't travel faster than the speed of light because if I move that you know

  • Very very close to the speed of light say 99 percent of the speed of light over here, and then I transfer that message

  • transfer a message back

  • Then that has trouble fast in the speed of light

  • But that's not possible so as soon as I measure this one

  • Spin up and this one it's been down that is an irreversible process

  • And the reason for that is you've had to put energy into this system

  • Okay, so you've had to say okay?

  • This one has to be sped up this one has to be spin down

  • And what you've done is you've put energy into the universe this is somehow

  • Interacted with the environment that it's in and with the universe and you've increased the entropy of the universe

  • So for those of you who are paying attention in school that should raise a little red flag the second law of thermodynamics

  • says that you cannot decrease the entropy of the universe so we've increased the entropy by doing that measurement and

  • Measuring to say that yes, this one has been up and this one has been down

  • And so you cannot reverse that process because reversing it you would have to decrease the entropy of the universe to do that

  • so any interaction with your environment breaks quantum entanglement

  • So what does that mean in terms of my crazy fan? Theory as soon as?

  • Will has moved the electrons and set up a circuit in one light bulb

  • He couldn't do it again in that same light bulb so when his mum has strung up the lights

  • With a single letter under every single light

  • he won't be able to use the same letter twice so we have to get very creative with his lettering and

  • in the show he writes the words right here, so he uses e twice and

  • therefore I don't think my theory holds because

  • He wouldn't be able to use eat Weiss

  • Under our understanding of quantum entanglement and quantum decoherence. He always sees an H twice as me

  • Right here. Yeah, okay, okay? I'll do that again

  • So I could influence his thoughts for example

  • How would I influence his thoughts well I'd have to change the biochemistry

  • I was a biochemistry about it's about electrons so somehow my electrons would have to couple

  • They'd have to become strongly quantum mechanically entangled with brady's electrons

There's this popular program calledStranger Thingson TV and

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ストレンジャー・シングス - 60のシンボル (Stranger Things - Sixty Symbols)

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    林宜悉 に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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