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  • Okay, so you've probably heard of Peru.

  • There's a popular one.

  • You know, LAMAs, macho peach juice of E.

  • J.

  • That Lincoln's but you probably don't see too often is the larger scope of what Peru has become in modern times.

  • It's this desert he mountain E Junglee, Asian fused, West Coast, business oriented chef of the Latin world.

  • Yeah, Chef, No one cooks like Peruvians and they'll Peru vit you.

  • Yeah, There you go.

  • That's my pun for the episode.

  • Everyone, I'm your host.

  • Barbs.

  • Geography poor.

  • Hey, Carlos says Prue is a beggar sitting on a gold bench.

  • There's lots of stuff to deal with, yet so many riches they have.

  • And now it's time to open the treasure map and find the pot of gold.

  • Shall we wait in South America?

  • Location matters.

  • Everybody wants two things.

  • Resource is and ocean.

  • And if you can have both, plus some really cool straw hats, you're probably gonna do well.

  • First of all, the countries located on the west coast of South America, bordered by five countries, the nation is further divided into 24 departments, each with their own flag and seal the capital and largest city of the country is Lima, which also acts as its own department.

  • Within the large Lima city limits, though, lies a special administrative division and the smallest one known as the Constitutional province of Kyle.

  • This little guy actually holds the biggest and busiest airport.

  • Jorge Chavez International, which even though technically is not part of Lima, is considered Lima's airport just a skip away.

  • You can also find the largest and busiest shipping port, the port of Kaio, where most major cargo ships dock and transport traded goods.

  • Speaking of the coast, down at the bottom of fruit, they have a slight maritime dispute with Chile, which kind of looks like this, but it doesn't really cause too much trouble.

  • Just a few fishing vessels might have a skirmish or to prove doesn't really have many islands off its coast.

  • However, the largest one is actually not too far off from Lima son Lorenzo Island, which is actually closed off to the public and controlled by the Peruvian Navy.

  • After Lima, though the second largest city is gonna keep it down south and a bit inland, which holds the third busiest airport, Rodriguez, by owning international and then threw hero makes it the third largest city.

  • Further up north along the coast, you might be wondering, What's the second busiest airport?

  • Well, do the high numbers of tourists flock walking in to see the ancient Incan sites like Machu Pichu?

  • It's actually Costco's Alejandro Velasco, a steady international airport.

  • Otherwise, about 86% of the population lives either within the coast or mountains and only about 10% in the rainforest to the east.

  • This means that the road network is bill accordingly.

  • And many of the secluded areas inland, like Iquitos, the capital of the Loreto department, have no land transport, and they're only accessible by air travel or painstakingly long riverboat journey.

  • And that's the funny thing.

  • Prue is incredibly lush and green on the interior, but most people prefer to live in the dry desert E coast.

  • I guess that's good, though.

  • I mean less people means less deforestation.

  • For what it's worth, though, there's another way to look at Peru.

  • Historically, Peru was the epicenter of the Incan empire, which had quite a wide network of roadways about 25,000 miles long that connected the entire domain that extended all the way from Ecuador to Argentina.

  • Spanning about 177,000 square miles.

  • These paths followed the Andes mostly and were built in a unique system that allowed porters called huskies to literally run and relay items or information or messages to other Chomsky's from coast to mounting.

  • Along the way, they would sometimes take pit stops at small houses, known as Tom bows that provided shelter and food to rest.

  • Soon the next Huskies would have to keep running and fulfill the delivery.

  • This porter system could sometimes cover over 150 miles a day, all without a single wheeled vehicle or even horse.

  • The wheel had never even been invented at this time, and the only animal of burden was the llama, which could not carry adult humans, let alone run with them.

  • Yet a wealthy or royal family living in Cusco could still have fresh fish caught from the ocean, delivered to them all within two days.

  • Not bad, yeah, literally, just people running on foot.

  • It worked somehow.

  • And speaking of Cusco, Peru has quite a lot of cool places to check out in case if you decide to visit, 12 of which are UNESCO heritage sites Yeah, we've all heard about most of the crew's gone macho peaches stuff and these other ones that have too many tourists.

  • However, in addition, there are these lesser known but equally fascinating sights.

  • This one's your kind of supposed to pronounce it like sexy Woman Sucks a woman.

  • There's also so many famous cathedrals and museums like these.

  • There's also the Lake Titicaca floating village shirt with Bolivia, the Sky Lodge Adventure Sweets, the last inking grass bridge salt pans of Mata Ross Wrinkle Nada, which claims to be the highest city in the world.

  • There's even a statue dedicated to Paddington Bear and the giant hat building in Saladin.

  • And there's so many natural wonders in Peru as well.

  • For crying out loud, they have a Rainbow Mountain, the world's tallest sand dune, third tallest waterfall in the world, largest left handed wave in the world and a boiling river.

  • But we're getting ahead of ourselves.

  • Stuff like that belongs in the next section.

  • Water the rest animals resource is or whatever with your powers combined.

  • I am Captain Paro and you guys were on that show nineties kids.

  • No.

  • Yeah, whatever.

  • First of all, the country sits right at the Ring of Fire at the convergence of the Nasca Plate under the South America plate.

  • This convergence is essentially how the Andes mountains were formed, the second tallest range on earth after the Himalayas.

  • In addition, it creates the Peru Chile trench just off the coast, which also makes the country pretty susceptible to earthquakes and some volcanic activity.

  • The nation is generally divided into three physical zones the Costa Sierra and Selva.

  • The coast is mostly dry in desert like with Eric vegetation.

  • In fact, the driest desert in the world, the Atacama hugs the southernmost tip off Peru.

  • The next part, the mountains or Sierra, takes up about 30% of the land and, of course, is made up of the highest parts of elevation, including the tall speak of the nation mountain Wescott on with its two majestic peaks just a Skip South, you find the largest lake, not only in Peru but all of South America, the highest navigable lake in the world.

  • Lake Titicaca shared with Bolivia.

  • It is also in this region that the longest river not only improve but also all of South America begins the famous Amazon, which branches out into thousands of other tributaries and streams.

  • But surveyors claim that the source of the Amazon are the headwaters of the Montage River, which is sourced at Lake who mean or chinch.

  • I coached the last physical region the Selva were.

  • Rainforest makes up about 60% of Peru's land makeup, and it's sparsely populated and filled with all that lush green human tropical forest stuff that you can imagine as we explain in the chili episode a long time ago.

  • The reason why the country is like this is essentially because of the rain shadow effect.

  • The winds carrying moisture are trapped in by the mountain ranges, leaving all the leftover dry air to blow out westward on the other side, parting the land and leaving it to form a depleted, arid landscape.

  • In contrast to the adjacent region.

  • On one more thing, the warm waters off the coast are also the source of El Nino, the crazy weather pattern in the Pacific that causes all the tropical storms and what not.

  • But that being said, it's time for my triple shot espresso break, which means now it's time for Noah to finish off this segment with the physical composition off Peru.

  • What all in a day's work as mentioned, Peru is home to a wide range of flora, fauna and overall physical contrast.

  • They're classified as a make a diverse nation with nearly 6000 endemic species.

  • They have about 1800 bird species, including the largest flying bird in the world, that giant Andean Condor.

  • In addition, there's also 500 species of mammal, including the national animal, the llama, and about the other species of reptiles in over 15,000 plant species, including the polio Raimondi, the world's tallest flowering plants.

  • And speaking of plans, the potato originated here in Peru, and they come in over 4000 different varieties, colors and shapes through his world's largest keen wall and mock a producer.

  • They also produce the world's most expensive coffee quality dung coffee, which is made from the partially fermented coffee beans that passed through the digestive system of a quality.

  • Wait.

  • So you're saying this whole time my espresso breaks could've been quality poop?

  • Coffee breaks?

  • I want that.

  • How much is it?

  • Well, once a limited supply of beings are harvested and produced, I mean, come on, come on.

  • It's only poop so much they can sell for up to $1400 per kilogram worth it.

  • Otherwise, resources have always been a key player in Peru's economy, specifically in the mineral mining industry.

  • They're the world's sixth largest gold producer, in which in itself makes up over 1/5 of their exports.

  • Service sector jobs have greatly increased, especially in the transport category.

  • Largest company in Peru is actually a row condor and finally time to bring this segment to a close like we always do.

  • Bowed Latin World Peru is a culinary powerhouse.

  • Often some of the top rating restaurants in the world are found in Peru like Central or my dough.

  • Some top motile dishes you guys suggests we mentioned include things like Mon Cel, Tato Arrows, Conan Pato and Tico.

  • Chose Rocco Tu Reino de Galina, Alpaca llama, Meet Luke UMA and Kama Kama Fruits Pappas.

  • Ah, one kinda in the national dishes ceviche.

  • Most of you may have heard of this in the lesser known qui, which is roasted guinea pig.

  • Yep, guinea pigs.

  • That's also a native animal.

  • You know what else is native people?

  • Which brings us to thank you, Noah, this great poop coffee when you think of proving people you think ponchos, pan flutes and those hats they wear, Yeah, there are some people like that in the country, but that's only one fraction.

  • Prue is pretty much like all the other nations in the Americas.

  • It has a story rooted in both native and for infusion.

  • Today.

  • Peru, much like its cuisine, has a little bit of everything blended into it, but never compromising the foundation of where everything got started.

  • And it's gotten pretty Asian.

  • First of all, the country has about 33 million people and is the fourth most populous nation in South America.

  • Coming up with the exact numbers for ethnic break up is a little tricky because not all the census data seems to match up exactly.

  • According to CIA World Factbook, the highest percentage of the largest group, Misty Souls numbers at about 60% and the Amur Indian community population is supposedly at around 25%.

  • However, some estimates I've encountered claim as high as around 46% so the exact number may vary Either way.

  • The largest groups of this category are kitsch.

  • Ooh and I mata.

  • Around 6% of the population are white, around 4% or black little around 3% are Asian, mostly Japanese and Chinese, and remain.

  • There are unspecified groups at around 2%.

  • And here's the weird thing, though, according to certain studies, it has speculated that historical intermarriages between Asians and locals dating back to the mid 19th century means that somewhere around 10 to 20% of the entire population could have East Asian roots down their lineage at some point.

  • If this were true, it would make prove potentially the most Asian off all the countries, not just in Latin America but all the Americas.

  • Yeah, I told you, those Asians left their mark for sure.

  • Mostly the Japanese.

  • I mean, after Brazil, they have the largest Japanese I ask for in the world.

  • And even one of the president's was Japanese.

  • It didn't go so well for him, but, hey, it shows how far the Japanese have come in Peru, anyway.

  • They use the Peruvian soul as their currency.

  • They use the Type A and B plug outlets, and they drive on the right side of the road back to people groups.

  • The country kind of has, like three official languages of course, Spanish.

  • And then there's kitsch.

  • Wow!

  • And finally I model, which is actually more spoken in Bolivia in the shortest way to put it in the kitchen.

  • Oh, and I'm Mata are basically the largest groups of modern descendants of the ancient Incan people's.

  • Most of them live in the high mountains of the Andes, which means their bodies from a young age have actually acclimated to the rather intense conditions of thin air and cold.

  • The average kitchen A and I'm on a person has a slower heart rate of third, larger lung capacity and more blood volume.

  • Dude, they're kind of like superhuman, kind of yeah, by force from birth, I guess.

  • Kind of.

  • Yeah, cool forced superpowers.

  • If it will help you remember that fact and find any per who.

  • The indigenous, although a vital part of the Peruvian identity, are only one part of the puzzle, though there's so much to discuss with the people.

  • And with that, here's random Hannah with culture stuff.

  • Today, with generations of multi cultural backgrounds, the population of Peru is very different from how it started centuries ago.

  • Get they never lost their roots as mentioned.

  • Historically, the Dinkins created an entire complex society of million's, all without the advantages that were used in Western societies.

  • According to Atlas Obscura, the Indians never invented the wheel, never figured out the arch and never discovered iron.

  • But they were masters of fiber.

  • Everything from ships, armor, slings and bridges were made a fiber one way or another.

  • They even had a system of communication with nano fibers called Keep Who's Otherwise.

  • Today, tradition still live on in the indigenous communities for one kitchen all women that are married often where various types of woven hats were a single women where knitted hats, Catholicism's of course, plays a huge role as well.

  • Somewhere around 3/4 of the country claimed to be affiliated to it.

  • Catholicism in Peru, though, has a high degree of synchronization.

  • For example, many herders from the countryside still pay tribute to patch a mama or mother.

  • For many of these people's traditional belief systems and themselves are still practiced, even apart from Catholic fusion.

  • In fact, Peru has the second highest number of shamans after India, and now we're going to do a list of some cultural stuff, but to help me, we're going to bring out in.

  • All right, We're back at it.

  • You know what to do?

  • Yep.

  • All right.

  • In addition, festivals in Peru are world renowned and famous for their intense, colorful displays festivals like Coppock Cola, which is a sort of rite of passage for boys.

  • There's also the scissor dance Does Santa Day to hiss the festivals of the Sun Inti, a grimy holy Week, is a huge deal and probably the most colorful and famous one, the law kind of area festival, held in February in the end of the no matter what part of Peru there from everyone knows the song Montego, Peru, it's practically a second anthem for them.

  • It can literally stop fights.

  • The festivals are, of course, riddled with so much food, colors and music.

  • Which, of course, brings us to Keith's absolutely terrible, horrible music segment using up Paraguana 00 peruano.

  • When you think of music and Peru immediately, most people just think pan flutes, pan flutes and pan flutes.

  • Pan flutes are a huge part of their musical culture, but there's a ton of other traditional instruments.

  • One of most commonly used ones is the Char Ron.

  • Go chair, Nago.

  • You which looks like ukulele but has a different structure and sound otherwise, apart from the traditional sounds over time, music and Peru evolved into something very special that many people groups all came together infused.

  • Their influences in each region kind of has its own specialty.

  • For example, you have Creole music, mostly along the coast, which has lots of influence from the Afro Peruvian community.

  • They use the cone a lot.

  • Prue was one of the leading founders of exotic cumbia, which fuses traditional Amazonian rhythms with Spanish melodies.

  • Everyone knows that song El Condor, Simon and Garfunkel even did a cover of it, and that's about it.

  • Remember by AKI Shirt, a geography now dot com, because this shirt is the she.

  • Thank you, Keith.

  • Yes, by started jogging.

  • Now there's a lot of other things you could've mentioned.

  • Like often when drinking beer, they leave a little left in the glass and import on the soil to give back to Mother Earth.

  • There's those long skulls of the Paracas, which are brought up a lot in alien conspiracy theories.

  • But anthropologists say that people would just kind of push their baby skulls in between longboards to make that shape for aesthetic reasons, symbolizing nobility.

  • They do have a long history of political strife.

  • I mean, the past five presidents are either dead or in jail.

  • And finally, almost every proving has told me We hate senorita Laura.

  • Don't mention her.

  • She is a national disgrace.

  • And she was exiled.

  • She's Mexico's problem now.

  • Yeah, thanks Peru.

  • In any case, now it's time to do the incredibly condensed history section in the quickest way I can put it.

  • Pre Incan civilizations Incas, Conquistadors come in.

  • They fight the Incas.

  • Amount of the second rebellion Vice royalty years under Spain.

  • Wars of independence for all of Latin America.

  • San Martin versus Boulevard Guano era.

  • Ramon Costa abolishes slavery.

  • War of the Pacific Foundation of a P.

  • R.

  • A.

  • First military dictatorship.

  • Democratic elections.

  • Second military dictatorship, Agrarian revolution, Democratic elections deport to Argentina during Falklands war, terrorism and economic crisis.

  • War with Ecuador before studios March Pan American Games in Lima and here we are today and now it's time for the extremely condensed, notable people section.

  • Some people, you guys, the Peruvian jungle people suggested we mention in this episode include so many soccer slash football players, but this one is probably the most famous war heroes like these people to pack a matter of the second part.

  • A cootie WAPA.

  • These two saints Juan Diego Florez, Susana Baca, Eva on Sambuca Granda Whole women's volleyball team that won the silver medal in the Olympics in Seoul.

  • Edwin Vasquez, Sofia Milanovic and while Piccolo Gladys to Hedda in S Milk.

  • Or Valentina Shevchenko, Ricardo Palma, Cesar Vallejo, Maria Vargas Llosa, Claudia Llosa and Daniel Peredo.

  • All right, and that's just about it.

  • And now we will talk about Peru's relations with the outside world shall way.

  • Latin World.