字幕表 動画を再生する 英語字幕をプリント [pleasant music] - [sniffing] Ah, nothing like bacon and eggs in the morning. It's a hearty meal that holds you together for the whole day. It's a combination so obvious that it's been around for as long as both foods existed. Humans naturally loved these foods together, so they became a staple of breakfast. Or did they? What if I were to tell you that the traditional combination of bacon and eggs isn't part of our natural history, but is instead a corporate conspiracy orchestrated by society's true puppet masters? It isn't a breakfast for champions. It's a breakfast for sheeple. [electronic music] ♪ ♪ We think that a lot of commonplace things are the way they are because of collective free choice, when in fact, sometimes, one or two people alone made a decision and created something that is now taken for granted as part of society-- just part of life. Here's the real story behind bacon and eggs. It all begins with Sigmund Freud. Or rather, his nephew, Edward Bernays. Bernays is credited as the "Father of Public Relations," the product of a time when the world had become just small enough that you could manipulate a lot of people at once because of the way that advertising, news, and radio could reach a large number of people quickly. Bernays took advantage of mass media not with the intention to inform, but with the intention to control. In the 1920s, Ed Bernays asked a doctor who worked at his agency whether a breakfast should be heavy or light, and the doctor pretty much said, "I guess heavy would be better." Bernays then had that doctor get 4,500 other doctors to confirm that. - All of them concurred that a heavy breakfast was better for the health of the American people. - Then, Bernays lobbied newspapers to publish that all these doctors were saying you should eat a big ol' breakfast. But he wasn't doing this to improve public health. He was doing this because Beech-Nut Packing Company, a major supplier of bacon, was paying him to do it. - The sale of bacon went up, and I still have a letter from Bartlett Arkell, president of Beech-Nut Packing Company, telling me so. - So we collectively, as a country, agreed that bacon was our breakfast meat of choice. But we didn't actually make that choice at all. And that's just breakfast. Our lives are full of decisions that we think we make of our own free will. But do we? [dramatic music] These days, our markets are inundated with products and choices. But is having many choices good or bad? [dreamy electronic music] ♪ ♪ Most people say they like a lot of choices. But do they really? We took our cameras and a few pounds of jelly beans to Venice Beach to find out. First, we invited people to pick one of two flavor choices. - Yeah, good. - Yeah, I'm happy with it. Yeah. Thank you. It was an easy choice to make. I chose it 'cause I wanted something fresh in my mouth. - I like it--I like lemon and citrus and everything like that. Good taste. I'm happy with my choice. - Most subjects were content with their selection when it was a choice between two options. But what happens when we offer more choices? Will the subjects be just as happy with their decision? - I see. Not licorice... Okay. Can I do more than one? Or just one? - Oh, my goodness. Mmm. Mm-hmm. Well, I'm kind of regretting not trying a fruit one. Because with jelly beans, it's more-- fruit is more natural to me. Like, I probably should have gone for my first choice, raspberry. Maybe I would have been happy. - There's, um--I mean, there's a lot to choose from. I'm gonna try one? - Okay. Marshmallow. - I don't know. Uh... You're always questioning, like, "Did I make the right choice," right? Like, initially, I wanted to try pineapple, but then I thought marshmallow, I don't want to miss out on marshmallow, or peach, or blueberry even. If I could choose again, I would probably pick peach. - All right. Pineapple. Very good. It's my favorite fruit. Mmm, I could have had blueberry, which is also one of my favorites. - Uh, kind of an impulse decision. I kind of wish I looked at the whole thing a little bit more. - Yeah. - Maybe I would have picked a better flavor. - So maybe sometimes we're actually happier with fewer choices? In fact, researchers have been exploring this idea for years. According to the famous jam experiment, a study by Sheena Iyengar and Mark Lepper published in 2000, too many similar choices may even stop us from making any choice at all. The study compared two store displays: one with 6 varieties of jam and one with 24. Although fewer consumers stopped to sample jam at the display with limited choices, a full 30% of them made a purchase. By contrast, only 3% of the consumers at the more extensive display actually bought a jar of jam. This is called "Choice paralysis." But life is all about choices. We like having choices. Don't we? Or are we happier when we have no choice at all? [static] Hello, and welcome to "Tea Time Word Scrambles," the game show where the competition is steep and trouble is always brewing? Some of our contestants will be given a choice of caffeinated black tea or soothing herbal tea. And the others will be given no choice at all. Once the tea takes effect, they'll be asked to unscramble some words. Which contestants will be happier with their performance? Those who have their choice of tea, or those who don't? Let's find out. It's "Tea Time." My name is Michael Stevens, your host today. Let's meet our contestant, Gisele. - Yay! - Nice to meet you, Gisele. - Nice to meet you too. - Tell me a little bit about yourself. - I'm from New York, and I've lived in LA for al-- [bell dinging] - Ooh! Gisele, you know what that sound means. - What? - That means it's Tea Time. - Yay! - Go ahead and take a seat in the Tea Seat. - Okay. I like tea. - Well, you're in for a treat, Gisele. - Okay. - Because today you are going to be unscrambling words. - Uh-oh. - A task that requires energy-- - Yeah. - Because there's a time limit, but it also requires focus. - Mm-hmm. Okay. - Steady, calm nerves. - Got it. - And patience. - Yeah. - So, today the choice is yours. You can either have some herbal tea that will keep you calm and focused... - Okay. - Or you can have some black tea that's caffeinated and will give you some energy. - Hmm. I'm gonna go with black. - Black tea? - Yeah. - All right. Go ahead and pour some black tea-- you know what? I'll have some too. Mmm, wonderful. Now, what made you pick black tea? - Um, I want to be energized. - Okay. - Yeah. - Here's to you. - Cheers. - Cheers. Mmm. [bell dinging] Whoa, you know what that sound means. It's word scrambling time. - Okay. - Remember, this subject had a free choice of which tea to drink. Will freedom of choice bring her happiness and satisfaction? Gisele, these are your words. - Oh, my God. When do I start? - Well, we're gonna put three minutes on the clock. - Okay. - Go ahead. You can use these steps to access the letters. The goal here is to solve as many as possible within the three minutes. - Got it. - And...go! - [sighs] [playful music] - Starting with word number five. ♪ ♪ Gisele has kitten. That looks like it could be the right answer. ♪ ♪ - Oh, yeah. - Vacuum. - Uh... Um... - Hearth. Looking good. - Oh, I don't know what this is. Um... [bell dinging] - Oh! And time is up, Gisele. Come on down. And let's take a look at how you did. - Oh. Oh, no. [laughs] - For number one, you got vacuum, which is correct, very good job. - Yay! - Very good job. For number two, hearth. Correct, very good job. - Yay! - Now, number three, you have "Taffrid." - [blows raspberry] - It's a very good word, but it's not one. The actual answer is adrift. - Oh, I was so stuck on that. - Number five, you have kitten. That was the first one you solved, and kitten is correct. - Yay! - Very good job. Now, down here at the bottom, uh, the answer is lounge. You have "Lougne." - Oh! I spelled it wrong! [buzzer blares] - No, we can't accept "Lougne," unfortunately. Well, Gisele, you received one, two, three points. [bell ringing] So, how do you feel you did? - I should've probably had the other tea because then it would have calmed my nerves. I should have chose the other tea. - This subject clearly regrets her choice. The fact that she chose the tea herself gives her the opportunity to second-guess her decision. What about the other subjects who were given freedom of choice? "Noric," we were looking for ironic. - Isn't that ironic? - No, it is not. What we were looking for was hearth. - Hearth? - Adrift. Shroud. - Are these words-- actual, real words? - Yeah, they are.