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  • For me they normally happen, these career crises,

    (翻訳: Kayo Mizutani 校正: Akira KAKINOHANA)私にとってこれらのキャリア悲観は

  • often, actually, on a Sunday evening,

    日曜日の夕方に太陽が沈もうとしている

  • just as the sun is starting to set,

    ちょうどその時によく起こります

  • and the gap between my hopes for myself,

    私が成りたい自分と現実の

  • and the reality of my life, start to diverge so painfully

    痛いほどのギャップを憂い

  • that I normally end up weeping into a pillow.

    涙で枕をぬらします

  • I'm mentioning all this,

    私がこんなことを話すのは

  • I'm mentioning all this because I think this is not merely a personal problem.

    これが単に私個人の問題ではないと思うからです

  • You may think I'm wrong in this,

    貴方は間違っていると思うかもしれませんが

  • but I think that we live in an age when our lives are regularly

    私達は経歴の転機によって人生が

  • punctuated by career crises,

    区切られる時代に生きています

  • by moments when what we thought we knew,

    自分の人生や経歴について

  • about our lives, about our careers,

    知っていると思った途端に

  • comes into contact with a threatening sort of reality.

    恐ろしい現実に出くわします

  • It's perhaps easier now than ever before to make a good living.

    今までに無い程簡単に豊かな生活が出来るのに

  • It's perhaps harder than ever before

    落ち着いてキャリアの不安から開放されるのは

  • to stay calm, to be free of career anxiety.

    前より難しくなりました

  • I want to look now, if I may,

    考えてみようと思います

  • at some of the reasons why

    経歴に不安を覚える

  • we might be feeling anxiety about our careers.

    理由について

  • Why we might be victims of these career crises,

    キャリア悲観の犠牲となって

  • as we're weeping softly into our pillows.

    涙で枕を濡らすのはなぜか

  • One of the reasons why we might be suffering

    苦悩の理由の一つは

  • is that we are surrounded by snobs.

    私達が俗物に取り囲まれているからです

  • In a way, I've got some bad news,

    さて、外国からオックスフォードに来る人にとって

  • particularly to anybody who's come to Oxford from abroad.

    悪いニュースがあります

  • There is a real problem with snobbery.

    そこに俗物精神の本当の問題があります

  • Because sometimes people from outside the U.K.

    外国からきた人はよく

  • imagine that snobbery is a distinctively U.K. phenomenon

    俗物主義は田舎の邸宅や称号に固執した

  • fixated on country houses and titles.

    イギリス特有の現象だと思いますが

  • The bad news is that's not true.

    それは間違いです

  • Snobbery is a global phenomenon.

    俗物精神は地球規模の現象です

  • We are a global organization. This is a global phenomenon.

    我々はグローバルな組織で、これはグローバルな現象です

  • It exists. What is a snob?

    俗物とは何でしょう?

  • A snob is anybody who takes a small part of you

    それはあなたの一部のみを取り上げ

  • and uses that to come to a complete vision of who you are.

    あたかもそれが貴方の全てであるように見る人です

  • That is snobbery.

    それが俗物精神です

  • The dominant kind of snobbery

    今日支配的な俗物主義は

  • that exists nowadays is job snobbery.

    経歴を鼻にかけることです

  • You encounter it within minutes at a party,

    パーティに行くと、一分以内に

  • when you get asked that famous iconic question

    21世紀で最も代表的な質問をされます

  • of the early 21st century, "What do you do?"

    「ご職業は?」と

  • And according to how you answer that question,

    その質問にどう答えるかによって

  • people are either incredibly delighted to see you,

    相手は貴方に会えた事を大そう喜ぶか

  • or look at their watch and make their excuses.

    または、時計を見て言い訳をします

  • (Laughter)

    (笑)

  • Now, the opposite of a snob is your mother.

    俗物の反対は母親です

  • (Laughter)

    (笑)

  • Not necessarily your mother, or indeed mine,

    あなたの母親や私の母親と言うわけではなく

  • but, as it were, the ideal mother,

    理想的な母親像で、

  • somebody who doesn't care about your achievements.

    貴方の業績を気にしない人の事です

  • But unfortunately, most people are not our mothers.

    でも、残念なことに殆んどの人は私達の母親ではありません

  • Most people make a strict correlation between how much time,

    殆んどの人は "時間"と

  • and if you like, love -- not romantic love,

    ロマンチックとは限らない一般的な"愛"や

  • though that may be something --

    敬意の間に厳格な相互関係を築き

  • but love in general, respect,

    相手の社会階級の位置で

  • they are willing to accord us, that will be strictly defined

    慎重に定義された

  • by our position in the social hierarchy.

    時間のみを割きます

  • And that's a lot of the reason why we care so much about our careers

    だから私達は経歴を気に掛けるのです

  • and indeed start caring so much about material goods.

    そして、身の回りの物質に気を配ります

  • You know, we're often told that we live in very materialistic times,

    私達はしごく物質的な時代を生きており

  • that we're all greedy people.

    貪欲だと言われます

  • I don't think we are particularly materialistic.

    私はそうは思わず

  • I think we live in a society

    物質を得るという事が

  • which has simply pegged certain emotional rewards

    ある種の感情的な報酬に結びついた

  • to the acquisition of material goods.

    社会に生きているのだと思います

  • It's not the material goods we want. It's the rewards we want.

    私達が欲しいのは物質でなく、報酬なのです

  • And that's a new way of looking at luxury goods.

    これは贅沢品への新しい見方を提供します

  • The next time you see somebody driving a Ferrari

    もし、フェラーリに乗っている人を見かけたら

  • don't think, "This is somebody who is greedy."

    「貪欲な人だ」などど思わず

  • Think, "This is somebody who is incredibly vulnerable and in need of love."

    「すごく傷つきやすく、愛に飢えた人だ」と思ってください

  • In other words -- (Laughter)

    言い換えると -- (笑)

  • feel sympathy, rather than contempt.

    軽蔑でなく、同情してあげて下さい

  • There are other reasons --

    他にも理由があります --

  • (Laughter)

    (笑)

  • there are other reasons why it's perhaps harder now

    心を落ち着かせるのが

  • to feel calm than ever before.

    今までに無い程難しい理由は他にあります

  • One of these, and it's paradoxical because it's linked to something that's rather nice,

    逆説的ですが、一つは私達の自分のキャリアに対する

  • is the hope we all have for our careers.

    期待に関係しています

  • Never before have expectations been so high

    人類がその生涯で成し遂げられることへの

  • about what human beings can achieve with their lifespan.

    期待は今までになく高く

  • We're told, from many sources, that anyone can achieve anything.

    誰でも何でも出来ると聞かされ

  • We've done away with the caste system.

    カースト制が無くなり

  • We are now in a system where anyone can rise

    自分が望むだけ昇れる

  • to any position they please.

    制度の中にいます

  • And it's a beautiful idea.

    これは素晴らしい発想です

  • Along with that is a kind of spirit of equality. We're all basically equal.

    私達は基本的に平等だという平等精神:

  • There are no strictly defined

    厳格に定められた

  • kind of hierarchies.

    階級もありません

  • There is one really big problem with this,

    ここに大きな問題があるのです

  • and that problem is envy.

    それは妬みです

  • Envy, it's a real taboo to mention envy,

    嫉妬、羨望を口にするのはタブーですが

  • but if there is one dominant emotion in modern society, that is envy.

    現代社会を支配する感情があるとすれば、それは妬みです

  • And it's linked to the spirit of equality. Let me explain.

    そして、それが平等精神に繋がるのです。説明しましょう

  • I think it would be very unusual for anyone here, or anyone watching,

    ここにいる人、またこれを見ている人で

  • to be envious of the Queen of England.

    英国女王を嫉妬する人はいないでしょう

  • Even though she is much richer than any of you are.

    彼女は大変なお金持ちで

  • And she's got a very large house.

    すごく大きな家に住んでいるのにです

  • The reason why we don't envy her is because she's too weird.

    私達が彼女を羨まないのは彼女が違いすぎるからです

  • She's simply too strange.

    彼女はとても特殊なので

  • We can't relate to her. She speaks in a funny way.

    共感を持てません。彼女は変わった話し方をし

  • She comes from an odd place.

    変わった場所から来ています

  • So we can't relate to her. And when you can't relate to somebody, you don't envy them.

    私達は彼女との接点が見出せず、関連が見出せないので 妬みもありません

  • The closer two people are, in age, in background,

    二人の年齢や状況、身の回りなど

  • in the process of identification, the more there is a danger of envy --

    近ければ近いほど、妬みを招く恐れがあります

  • which is incidentally why none of you should ever go to a school reunion --

    だから学校の同窓会など行かないことです

  • because there is no stronger reference point

    なぜなら、学校の同級生ほど

  • than people one was at school with.

    確かな基準点は無いからです

  • But the problem, generally, of modern society, is that it turns the whole world

    現代社会の問題は、全世界を学校に摩り替えてしまうことです

  • into a school. Everybody is wearing jeans, everybody is the same.

    皆がジーンズを穿いて、同じだけど

  • And yet, they're not.

    実は、同じではない

  • So there is a spirit of equality, combined with deep inequalities.

    平等精神と深い不平等が入り混じっています

  • Which makes for a very -- can make for a very stressful situation.

    とてもストレスの溜まる状況です

  • It's probably as unlikely that you would nowadays

    今貴方が ビル・ゲイツのように

  • become as rich and famous as Bill Gates,

    お金持ちで有名になることは

  • as it was unlikely in the 17th century

    17世紀に貴方がフランス上流階級の階級を

  • that you would accede to the ranks of the French aristocracy.

    継承するのと同じくらい無理なことでしょう

  • But the point is, it doesn't feel that way.

    要点はその気になるかどうかです

  • It's made to feel, by magazines and other media outlets,

    雑誌やマスコミに煽られると

  • that if you've got energy, a few bright ideas about technology,

    精力やテクノロジー、それに少しの名案があれば

  • a garage, you too could start a major thing.

    ガレージで大きなことが始められるような気になります

  • (Laughter)

    (笑)

  • And the consequences of this problem make themselves felt in bookshops.

    これはまるで私達を本屋にいるような気分にさせます

  • When you go to a large bookshop and look at the self-help sections,

    私はたまに大きな本屋に行って

  • as I sometimes do,

    自己啓発の部門を見ますが

  • if you analyze self-help books that are produced

    世界中で発行されている自己啓発の本を分析すると

  • in the world today, there are basically two kinds.

    基本的に2種類に分類されます

  • The first kind tells you, "You can do it! You can make it! Anything is possible!"

    最初のは「貴方には出来る!不可能はない!」

  • And the other kind tells you how to cope

    そして、他の種類はよく言えば「自尊心の低い人」

  • with what we politely call "low self-esteem,"

    悪く言えば「自分を最低と思っている人」への

  • or impolitely call "feeling very bad about yourself."

    対処方

  • There is a real correlationship,

    「貴方は何でも出来る」と

  • a real correlation between a society that tells people that they can do anything

    励ます社会と自尊心の低さには

  • and the existence of low self-esteem.

    相関関係があります

  • So that's another way in which something that is quite positive

    これは何か肯定的なものには

  • can have a nasty kickback.

    ひどい反作用がある例です

  • There is another reason why we might be feeling more anxious,

    私達が今まで以上に職業や地位を気にするのは

  • about our careers, about our status in the world today, than ever before.

    他にも理由があります

  • And it is, again, linked to something nice,

    これも肯定的なものと結びついています

  • and that nice thing is called meritocracy.

    それは実力社会と呼ばれ

  • Everybody, all politicians on Left and Right,

    右や左の政治家やだれもが

  • agree that meritocracy is a great thing,

    実力主義は素晴らしく

  • and we should all be trying to make our societies really, really meritocratic.

    私達は本当の実力社会を築くべきだと同調します

  • In other words, what is a meritocratic society?

    実力社会とは何でしょう?

  • A meritocratic society is one in which

    実力社会とは貴方に才能や

  • if you've got talent and energy and skill,

    精力、技能があれば 何の障害もなく

  • you will get to the top. Nothing should hold you back.

    トップに立てる社会です

  • It's a beautiful idea. The problem is

    素晴らしい発想です。問題は

  • if you really believe in a society

    もし、実力のある者が

  • where those who merit to get to the top, get to the top,

    頂点に立てる社会というものを信じているならば

  • you'll also, by implication, and in a far more nasty way,

    それは暗に

  • believe in a society where those who deserve to get to the bottom

    実力のない人は下にいて、這い上がれない社会を

  • also get to the bottom and stay there.

    信じているということです

  • In other words, your position in life comes to seem not accidental,

    これは人生での地位が偶然ではなく

  • but merited and deserved.

    実力で獲た物と言え

  • And that makes failure seem much more crushing.

    だから失敗がとても痛烈なのです

  • You know, in the Middle Ages, in England,

    中世のイギリスで

  • when you met a very poor person,

    貧乏な人は

  • that person would be described as an "unfortunate" --

    「不幸な人」と呼ばれました

  • literally, somebody who had not been blessed by fortune, an unfortunate.

    言葉どおり運に恵まれなかった人たちです

  • Nowadays, particularly in the United States,

    現代では、特に米国では

  • if you meet someone at the bottom of society,

    社会の底辺にいる人は

  • they may unkindly be described as a "loser."

    「敗者」と呼ばれます

  • There is a real difference between an unfortunate and a loser,

    不幸と敗者には大きな違いがありますす

  • and that shows 400 years of evolution in society

    これは400年にわたる社会の進化と

  • and our belief in who is responsible for our lives.

    人生の責任起因の進化です

  • It's no longer the gods, it's us. We're in the driving seat.

    それはもはや神ではなく、私達自身なのです。

  • That's exhilarating if you're doing well,

    うまく行っているときは爽快ですが

  • and very crushing if you're not.

    そうじゃないと痛烈で

  • It leads, in the worst cases, in the analysis of a sociologist

    エミール・デュルケームなど社会学者の分析によると

  • like Emil Durkheim, it leads to increased rates of suicide.

    最悪、自殺者の率が増えるそうです

  • There are more suicides in developed individualistic countries

    先進国の個人主義の国ではその他の国に比べて

  • than in any other part of the world.

    自殺者が増えています

  • And some of the reason for that is that people take what happens

    その理由は、人々が出来事の責任を

  • to them extremely personally.

    全て自分のせいだと思うからです

  • They own their success. But they also own their failure.

    成功の理由は自分にあり、失敗もまた自分にある

  • Is there any relief from some of these pressures

    これらの重圧から

  • that I've just been outlining?

    逃れる方法はあるでしょうか?

  • I think there is. I just want to turn to a few of them.

    あると思います。少し紹介しましょう

  • Let's take meritocracy.

    実力主義を取り上げると

  • This idea that everybody deserves to get where they get to,

    誰もが行き着くところに行くという発想

  • I think it's a crazy idea, completely crazy.

    これは馬鹿げた発想です

  • I will support any politician of Left and Right,

    政治家の右・左関係なく、この実力主義の半分でも

  • with any halfway decent meritocratic idea.

    ましな発想を提案すれば私は支持します

  • I am a meritocrat in that sense.

    私は実力主義ですが

  • But I think it's insane to believe that we will ever

    純粋な実力社会を築こうなんて

  • make a society that is genuinely meritocratic. It's an impossible dream.

    馬鹿げた発想です。不可能な夢です

  • The idea that we will make a society

    皆が正当に評価され

  • where literally everybody is graded,

    良い者から上、悪いのは下、

  • the good at the top, and the bad at the bottom,

    という社会を築くなんて

  • and it's exactly done as it should be, is impossible.

    不可能です

  • There are simply too many random factors:

    無作為の要因があまりにも多いからです

  • accidents, accidents of birth,

    事故、出生事故

  • accidents of things dropping on people's heads, illnesses, etc.

    頭の上に物が落ちてくるような事故、病気等

  • We will never get to grade them,

    それらに評価はつけられません

  • never get to grade people as they should.

    人を正当に評価するなど出来ようもありません

  • I'm drawn to a lovely quote by St. Augustine in "The City of God,"

    アウグスティヌス聖人の「神の国」に面白い引用があります

  • where he says, "It's a sin to judge any man by his post."

    彼はこう言っています「地位で人を判断するのは罪である」

  • In modern English that would mean

    現代英語で言い換えると

  • it's a sin to come to any view of who you should talk to

    誰と会話をするかをビジネスカードで判断するのは

  • dependent on their business card.

    罪である

  • It's not the post that should count.

    地位なんてどうでもいいのです

  • According to St. Augustine,

    アウグスティヌス聖人によると

  • it's only God who can really put everybody in their place.

    誰がどこに納まるかは神のみが知り

  • And he's going to do that on the Day of Judgment

    神は天使が舞い、トランペットが響き、天が開く

  • with angels and trumpets, and the skies will open.

    審判の日にそれを決める

  • Insane idea, if you're a secularist person, like me.

    私のような世俗主義にとってはばかばかしい発想です

  • But something very valuable in that idea, nevertheless.

    それでも大変価値のあるものがその発想にあります

  • In other words, hold your horses when you're coming to judge people.

    人を判断するのはちょっと待て、という事です

  • You don't necessarily know what someone's true value is.

    誰かの本当の価値なんて知る必要はありません

  • That is an unknown part of them.

    それは知らざれる部分なのです

  • And we shouldn't behave as though it is known.

    だから、私達はそれをまるで知っているように振舞うべきではありません

  • There is another source of solace and comfort for all this.

    これらを慰める癒しの情報源は他にもあります

  • When we think about failing in life, when we think about failure,

    人生に失敗したとか、失敗について考える時

  • one of the reasons why we fear failing is not just

    私達が恐れるのは収入面や

  • a loss of income, a loss of status.

    地位を無くすからだけではなく

  • What we fear is the judgment and ridicule of others. And it exists.

    他人の判断や嘲笑を私達は恐れるのです。

  • You know, the number one organ of ridicule

    さて、最大の嘲笑の機関

  • nowadays, is the newspaper.

    現代のそれは新聞です

  • And if you open the newspaper any day of the week,

    週の何曜日だろうと、新聞を開けば

  • it's full of people who've messed up their lives.

    人生を台無しにした人でいっぱいです

  • They've slept with the wrong person. They've taken the wrong substance.

    悪い人と関係を持った、悪い薬物を取った

  • They've passed the wrong piece of legislation. Whatever it is.

    悪い法案を通した、それが何は関係なく

  • And then are fit for ridicule.

    嘲笑に値する

  • In other words, they have failed. And they are described as "losers."

    言い換えれば、彼らは失敗した、だから「敗北者」だ

  • Now is there any alternative to this?

    さて、これに替わる手段はあるのでしょうか?

  • I think the Western tradition shows us one glorious alternative,

    西洋文明が素晴らしい代替を提供してくれます

  • and that is tragedy.

    それは悲劇です

  • Tragic art, as it developed in the theaters of ancient Greece,

    紀元前5世紀、古代ギリシャ劇場で発展した悲劇的芸術は

  • in the fifth century B.C., was essentially an art form

    本質的にどうやって人が失敗するかを

  • devoted to tracing how people fail,

    熱心に追求した芸術形式です

  • and also according them a level of sympathy,

    そしてそれに伴う同情は