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  • >> GOOD AFTERNOON.

  • AND WELCOME TO THE WEDNESDAY

  • AFTERNOON LECTURE SERIES.

  • I'M FROM THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE

  • ON DEAFNESS AND OTHER COMMUNICATION DISORDERS.

  • TODAY'S TALK IS IMPORTANT

  • BECAUSE UNDERSTANDING VOICE,

  • SPEECH AND LANGUAGE AND THEIR

  • ASSOCIATED DISORDERS IS CRITICAL

  • FOR HUMAN PATIENTS BECAUSE THE

  • COMMUNICATION HAS DEVASTATING

  • EFFECTS ON COMMUNICATION

  • DISORDERS INCLUDING STROKES, DIX

  • LEXIA AND MANY OTHERS.

  • SO IDENTIFYING ANIMAL MODELS FOR

  • A TRAIT HAS BEEN A CHALLENGE.

  • AND BUT SONG BIRDS HAVE PROVEN

  • TO BE A USEFUL MODEL FOR AFFECTS

  • OF VOCAL LEARNING AND

  • PRODUCTION.

  • AND TODAY'S SPEAKER, DR. ERIC

  • YAFFE SIS A PIONEER IN IN FIELD.

  • -- PUBLISHED OVER 60 ARTICLES

  • INCLUDING A SERIES OF SEMINOLE

  • STUDIES IN THE LATE 1990s WITH

  • DR. FERNANDO.

  • HE IS ALSO WELL-KNOWN FOR HIS

  • PERSONAL AND PROFESSIONAL

  • JOURNEY TOWARDS A CAREER IN

  • RESEARCH.

  • HE WAS BORN AND GREW UP IN

  • HARLEM, NEW YORK, WHERE HE

  • ATTENDED A MAJOR AT THE NEW YORK

  • PUBLIC HIGH SCHOOL FOR THE

  • PERFORMING ARTS.

  • HE WAS OFFERED DANCE

  • SCHOLARSHIPS WITH THE JAFFRAY

  • BALLET AND WITH THE DANCE

  • SCHOOL, BUT DECIDED INSTEAD TO

  • ATTEND HUNTER COLLEGE WHERE HE

  • RECEIVED A BACHELOR'S DEGREE IN

  • MATHEMATICS AND BIOLOGY.

  • HE THEN PURSUED GRADUATE AND

  • POST GRADUATE FELLOWSHIP

  • TRAINING AT ROCKEFELLER WHERE HE

  • EARNED HIS Ph.D. IN MOLECULAR

  • NEUROBIOLOGY AND BEGAN HIS LIFE

  • ON WORK IN VOCAL LEARNING IN

  • SONG BIRDS WITH.

  • IN 1998, HE JOINED DUKE

  • UNIVERSITY IN THE DEPARTMENT OF

  • NEUROBIOLOGY WHERE HE RISEN

  • THROUGH THE FACULTY RANKS TO A

  • TENURED POSITION AS WELL AS MANY

  • SECONDARY APPOINTMENTS.

  • HE RECEIVED DOZENS OF AWARDS AND

  • WIDE RECOGNITION AND IS THE

  • SOURCE OF CVMD FOR ME AND IN

  • 2002, HE RECEIVED AT WELL -- THE

  • ALLEN WATERMAN AWARD, THE

  • HIGHEST AWARD FOR YOUNG

  • INVESTIGATORS GIVEN ANNUAL TOW

  • ONE SCIENTIST OR ENGINEER UNDER

  • THE AGE OF 35 AND MADE A

  • SIGNIFICANT DISCOVERY IN

  • SCIENCE.

  • AND JUST A FEW OF THE OTHER

  • AWARDS IN 2005, HE RECEIVED THE

  • NIH DIRECTOR'S PIONEER AWARD AND

  • IN 2008, HE BECAME A HOWARD

  • HUGHES MEDICAL INSTITUTE

  • INVESTIGATOR AND THEN 2012,

  • HE'LL DELIVER THE WEDNESDAY

  • AFTERNOON LECTURE SERIES.

  • SO WELCOME TO DR. JARVIS.

  • [ APPLAUSE ]

  • >> THANK YOU FOR TRA

  • INTRODUCTION.

  • SO, I HAVE BEEN TRYING TO SAY

  • THIS, THIS IS A BIG LECTURE HERE

  • SO I HOPE NOT TO DISAPPOINT.

  • I'M GOING GOING TO TRY TO KEEP IT

  • GENERAL.

  • AND ALSO ENCOURAGE IF THERE IS

  • SOMETHING WE DON'T UNDERSTAND IN

  • THE MIDDLE, SO, MY GUESS IS

  • UNDERSTANDING BRAIN MECHANISM OF

  • COMPLEX BEHAVIORAL TRAITS AND

  • THE PARTICULAR TRAITS THEY

  • STUDIED MOST IS BOTH LEARNING

  • BECAUSE IT'S CONSIDERED ONE OF

  • THE CRITICAL BEHAVIORAL

  • SUBSTRATES OF THE SPOKEN

  • LANGUAGE.

  • AND WHEN I BEGAN THIS PROJECT,

  • THE ASSUMPTIONS WAS THAT WE HAVE

  • HUMANS WHO ARE VOCAL LEARNERS

  • AND WE USE THAT BEHAVIOR TO

  • PRODUCE AND IMITATE OUR SPEECHES

  • AND SONG BIRDS WHO ARE TEND TO

  • BE MODEL SPECIES FOR THIS TRAIT

  • AS THAT'S THE ANIMAL MODEL THAT

  • FITS CLOSELY TO WHAT WE CAN SAY

  • IS LIKE SPEECH AND THEN MICE WHO

  • ARE CONSIDERED NON-VOCAL

  • LEARNERS.

  • THAT'S WHERE I'M BEGINNING.

  • AND I'M GOING TALK TO YOU ABOUT

  • ADDRESSING THAT QUESTION.

  • IS THAT REALLY TRUE?

  • AND AT WORK, AS IN MOST LABS,

  • IT'S NOT JUST DONE BY ONE

  • PERSON, BUT DONE BY MULTIPLE

  • PEOPLE.

  • IT WAS DONE BY TWO PEOPLE IN MY

  • LAB, ONE WHO GRADUATED AS DONE A

  • SHORT POSTDOC IN MY LAB, AND THE

  • UNDERGRADUATE STUDENT.

  • AND THEY REALLY DID A TOUR DE

  • FORCE PROJECT OVER A NUMBER OF

  • YEARS THAT I'M GOING TO TELL YOU

  • ABOUT.

  • WHAT IS VOCAL LEARNING AND WHO

  • IS VOCAL LEARNING?

  • VOCAL LEARNING IS THE ABILITY

  • FOE IMITATE SOUNDS THAT YOU

  • HEAR.

  • SOME SPECIES CAN DO IT

  • PROLIFICALLY LIKE HUMANS AND

  • SOME ARE LIMITED OTHERS CAN

  • IMITATE THOUSANDS OF SOUNDS.

  • WHEN VOCAL LEARNING IS PRESENT,

  • WHAT WE SEE AMONG THE MAMMALIAN

  • TREE, BIRD FAMILY TREE, IT'S

  • RELATIVELY SPARSE.

  • SO HERE IS ONE VIEW OF A MAMMAL

  • FAMILY TREE AND REGARDLESS OF

  • THE VIEW THAT YOU LOOK AT, YOU

  • WILL SEE THAT THOSE THAT ARE

  • VOCAL LEARNERS THAT I HIGHLIGHT

  • IN RED, ELEPHANTS, DOLPHINS AND

  • BATS, WHALES AS WELL AND AMONG

  • PRIMATE, ONLY HUMANS, NOT ONLY

  • PRIMATES, IS SPARSELY

  • DISTRIBUTED AMONG THE MAMMALIAN

  • FAMILY TREE.

  • THE SAME THING FOR BIRDS.

  • SO WE HAVE ROUGHLY 28 ORDERS OF

  • BIRDS HERE AND WE HAVE HUMMING

  • BIRDS AND PARROTS AND SONG BIRDS

  • THAT ARE THE VOCAL LEARNERS.

  • THIS IS DIFFERENT FROM AUDITORY

  • LEARN COMING IS THE ABILITY TO

  • PROCESS NOVEL SOUNDS AND LEARN

  • AUDITORY LEARNING DOESN'T MEAN

  • YOU AUTOMATICALLY HAVE VOCAL

  • LEARNING.

  • IT'S ARGUED THAT THE ABILITY OF

  • VOCAL LEARNING EVOLVED

  • INDEPENDENTLY ALSO IN BIRDS.

  • ONE POSSIBILITY IS THAT THERE IS

  • A NEW VIEW OF THE AVIAN FAMILY

  • TREE, SOME 16 GENETIC MARKERS

  • ARGUED THAT PARROTS RELATIVE TO

  • SONG BIRDS, THE POSSIBILITY

  • LEADING TO MAYBE TWO INDEPENDENT

  • GAINS OF VOCAL LEARNING.

  • ONE IN THE HUMMING BIRDS AND ONE

  • IN PARENTS AND SONG BIRDS.

  • A COMMON ANCESTOR WITH VOCAL

  • MUTATION IN CHAM PAN SEES LOSING

  • THAT ABILITY IN HUMANS

  • MAINTAINING IT.

  • SO HOW FAR THIS EVOLVED, IT'S

  • FASCINATING BUT IT'S ALL ALONG

  • ASSUMED THAT RODE ENDS HAVE OR

  • DO NOT HAVE THIS ABILITY.

  • ONCE A SPECIES HAS IT, IT SEEMS

  • TO COME ALONG WITH A PACKAGE OF

  • TRAITS.

  • AND THAT PACKAGE, I LISTED IN

  • SEVERAL BULLET POINTS HERE, IS

  • THAT WE DEPEND UPON AUDITORY

  • FEEDBACK TO ACTUALLY PRACTICE

  • AND DEVELOP OUR LEARNED

  • VOCALIZATIONS.

  • WE GO THROUGH CRITICAL PERIODS,

  • WHEN I SAY, WE, I'M TALKING

  • ABOUT VOCAL LEARNERS GENERALLY.

  • WE GO THROUGH CRITICAL PERIODS

  • WHERE WE LEARN HOW TO IMITATE

  • VOCALIZATIONS AT EARLIER STAGE

  • IN LIFE THAN AFTER PUBERTY.

  • THAT'S WHY IT'S EASY TO LEARN A

  • DIFFERENT LANGUAGE BEFORE

  • PUBERTY.

  • WE CULTURALLY TRANSMIT VOCAL

  • REPERTOIREES FROM ONE GENERATION

  • TO THE NEXT AND A FORM OF SYNTAX

  • TO VARIOUS DEGREES.

  • SOME PRODUCE MORE COMPLEX AND

  • SOME ARE MORE SIMPLE.

  • AND ORDERS OF VOCAL

  • COMMUNICATION ARE ALSO SHARED.

  • ONE OF THEM IS DEAF-INDUCED

  • VOCAL DISORDERS.

  • WHEN WE BECOME DEAF, AND WHEN A

  • SONG BIRD BECOMES DEAF, OUR

  • VOCALIZATIONS EVENTUALLY

  • DETERIORATE IF WE DON'T HAVE

  • SOME TYPE OF THERAPY.

  • THE SPEECH BECOMES MIDDLED.

  • THAT IS BECAUSE WE NEED TO HEAR

  • OURSELVES IN ORDER TO MAINTAIN

  • THE LEARNED VOCALIZATIONS.

  • WHEREAS NON-VOCAL LEARNING

  • SPECIES, WHETHER THEY BECOME

  • DEAF, THE VOCALIZATIONS REMAIN

  • INTACT.

  • WE HAVE PHASES OF SPEECH THROUGH

  • BRAIN DAMAGE.

  • WITH SONG BIRDS YOU CAN DAMAGE

  • THE BRAIN AND EFFECT THE LEARNED

  • SOUNDS AND SPEECH-SOUND

  • DISORDERS.

  • WE HAVEN'T FOUND ANYTHING LIKE

  • THAT IN SONG BIRDS YET BUT

  • PEOPLE ARE OUT THERE SEARCHING

  • FOR THAT INCLUDING THINGS

  • RELATED TO AUTISM.

  • SO, THAT'S THE BEHAVIOR.

  • WHAT ABOUT THE BRAINS?

  • WE KNOW MORE ABOUT THE BRAINS

  • FOR THESE PATHWAYS IN BIRDS THAN

  • IN MAMMALS.

  • BECAUSE WE CAN DO A LOT OF

  • EXPERIMENTAL WORK WITH THEM.

  • AND MY WORK AND OTHERS HAVE

  • SHOWN THAT HERE IS THE FAMILY

  • TREE OF BIRDS.

  • AND HERE IS SEMI 3D

  • RECONSTRUCTIONS OF THEIR BRAIN

  • ANATOMY FOR VOCAL COMMUNICATION

  • PATHWAYS.

  • HIGHLIGHTED IN BLUE ARE BRAIN

  • PATHWAYS THAT ARE INVOLVED IN

  • PROCESSING THE SOUNDS THAT

  • ANIMAL HEARS, IN THIS CASE THESE

  • BIRDS.

  • YOU CAN FIND THIS AUDITORY

  • PATHWAY -- I DON'T SHOW THE

  • CONNECTIVITY HERE -- BUT YOU CAN

  • FIND IT IN ALL SPECIES OF BIRDS

  • AND FIND IT IN MANY OTHER

  • VERTEBRATES IN THE FOREBRAIN AND

  • THOUGHT TO BE INVOLVED IN THE

  • PROCESSING OF NOT ONLY OF SOUNDS

  • BUT ALSO IN LEARNING INFORMATION

  • ABOUT AUDITORY SIGNALS.

  • SO IT'S BEEN ARGUED THAT THIS

  • AUDITORY PATHWAY FOUND IN THE

  • VOCAL LEARNING SPECIES, THE SONG

  • BIRDS, PARROTS AND HUMMING BIRDS

  • WAS INHERIT FRIDAY A COMMON

  • ANCESTOR.