Placeholder Image

字幕表 動画を再生する

  • Translator: Joseph Geni Reviewer: Camille Martínez

  • (In Maori: My mountain is Taupiri.)

  • (Waikato is my river.)

  • (My name is Marilyn.)

  • (Hello.)

  • As you've heard, when I was very young,

  • I was elected to the New Zealand Parliament.

  • And at that age, you learn mostly by listening to others' stories.

  • I remember a woman who'd been injured in a farm accident,

  • and it was coming up to shearing time

  • on the farm,

  • and she had to be replaced by a shepherd,

  • by a rousie in the woolshed,

  • and of course there was still someone needed to manage the household

  • and to prepare the food for the shearing gangs.

  • And her mother came to help with that.

  • But the family got no compensation for the mother,

  • because that's what mothers and family members are supposed to do.

  • One year, a company called Gold Mines New Zealand

  • applied for a prospecting license on our beautiful Mt. Pirongia.

  • It is a mountain

  • full of extraordinary ecosystems,

  • of verdant, virgin native forests.

  • It produced oxygen, it was a carbon sink,

  • it was a home for endangered species and for pollinating species

  • in the farmland around.

  • And the mining company put up this great economic prospectus

  • that was about how much money could be made

  • from mining our mountain,

  • about all the growth and development

  • that would show in New Zealand's budgetary forecasts,

  • and we were just left with the language

  • of all that we valued about our mountain.

  • Fortunately, we stopped.

  • And then I remembered

  • a woman who had three children under five

  • who was caring for her elderly parents,

  • and nobody seemed to think that at some stage

  • she might actually need some assistance with childcare,

  • because she wasn't in the paid workforce.

  • And there began to be a pattern in all of these stories I was being told.

  • And I started to ask enough questions

  • to try and track to the core of this pattern of values

  • that was part of all of these stories.

  • And I found it

  • in an economic formula called the "gross domestic product,"

  • or the GDP.

  • Most of you will have heard of it.

  • Many of you won't have any idea what it actually means.

  • The rules were drawn up by Western-educated men in 1953.

  • They established a boundary of production

  • in drawing up these rules.

  • What they were keen to measure

  • was everything that involved a market transaction.

  • So on one side of the boundary,

  • everything where there was a market exchange was counted.

  • It doesn't matter whether the exchange is legal or illegal.

  • Market exchange in the illegal trade in armaments, [munitions],

  • drugs, endangered species,

  • trafficking of people --

  • all of this is great for growth

  • and it all counts.

  • On the other side of the boundary of production,

  • there was this extraordinary phrase in the rules

  • that the work done by the people they called "nonprimary producers"

  • was "of little or no value."

  • So I thought, let's see how many nonprimary producers we have here today.

  • So in the last week or so,

  • how many of you have transported members of your household or their goods

  • without payment?

  • How many of you have done a bit of cleaning, a bit of vacuuming,

  • a bit of sweeping, a bit of tidying up the kitchen?

  • Yeah?

  • How about going shopping for members of the household?

  • Preparing food? Cleaning up afterwards?

  • Laundry? Ironing?

  • (Laughter)

  • Well, as far as economics is concerned,

  • you were at leisure.

  • (Laughter)

  • (Applause and cheers)

  • Now, how about the women

  • who have been pregnant and who have had children?

  • Yes.

  • Now, I really hate to tell you this,

  • because it might well have been hard labor,

  • but at that moment, you were unproductive.

  • (Laughter)

  • And some of you may have breastfed your infant.

  • Now, in the New Zealand national accounts --

  • that's what the figures are called, that's where we get the GDP --

  • in the New Zealand national accounts,

  • the milk of buffalo, goats, sheep and cows

  • is of value

  • but not human breast milk.

  • (Laughter)

  • It is the very best food on the planet.

  • It is the very best investment that we can make in the future health

  • and education of that child.

  • It doesn't count at all.

  • All of those activities are on the wrong side of the production boundary.

  • And something that's very important to know

  • about this accounting framework:

  • they call it "accounts,"

  • but there's no debit side.

  • We just keep market exchanges going,

  • and it's all good for growth.

  • We're in Christchurch,

  • where people have lived through a devastating natural disaster

  • and recovered.

  • And ever since that time,

  • New Zealand has been told

  • our growth figures are great, because we're rebuilding Christchurch.

  • Nothing was ever lost

  • from the national accounting framework

  • because of the loss of lives,

  • the loss of land,

  • the loss of buildings,

  • the loss of special spaces.

  • Now, it might also be becoming obvious to you

  • that this boundary of production works in terms of our environment.

  • When we're mining it,

  • when we're deforesting,

  • when we're deleting our environment,

  • when we're fishing out our marine resources,

  • legal or illegal,

  • as long as market is exchanged, it's all good for growth.

  • To leave our natural environment alone,

  • to sustain it, to protect it,

  • is apparently worth nothing.

  • Now, how and what can we do about this?

  • Well, I wrote first about it 30 years ago.

  • Then in 2008, after the global financial crisis,

  • President Sarkozy of France

  • asked three men who had all won Nobel Prizes in Economics --

  • Sen, Fitoussi and Stiglitz --

  • to discover what I'd written about

  • 30 years ago.

  • (Laughter)

  • (Applause)

  • "Relying on per capita GDP, relying on these growth figures," they said,

  • "doesn't appear to be the best way to proceed

  • to make public policy."

  • And I totally agree with them.

  • (Laughter)

  • One of the things that you notice about these rules --

  • they are revised; 1968 they were revised, 1993, 2008 --

  • is that the revisions are mostly done by statisticians,

  • and the statisticians do know what is wrong with the data,

  • but hardly any of the economists ever stop to ask that same question.

  • So, in 2019,

  • the GDP is in even worse shape.

  • You see, to measure GDP,

  • you have to assume that some kind of production

  • or service delivery or consumption

  • occurs inside a nation-state,

  • and you know where that is.

  • But trillions of dollars are circling the globe

  • in mini-part from our Googles, our Facebooks, our Twitters,

  • siphoned through a number of tax shelters,

  • so that when we click on our computer

  • and go to download some software,

  • we don't know where it was produced,

  • and frankly, no one knows where we are as we're consuming it, either.

  • These tax-free havens

  • distort the GDP to such an extent

  • that about three years ago,

  • Europe looked askance at Ireland

  • and said, "We don't think you're reporting correctly,"

  • and in the next year, their GDP went up 35 percent.

  • Now, all that work that you're doing

  • when you were at leisure and unproductive,

  • we can measure this,

  • and we can measure this in time use surveys.

  • When we look at the amount of time that's taken

  • in the unpaid sector,

  • what we find is that in almost every country where I've ever seen the data,

  • it is the single largest sector of the nation's economy.

  • In the last three years, for example,

  • the UK statistician has declared

  • that all of that unpaid work is the equivalent of all manufacturing

  • and all retailing in the UK.

  • In Australia,

  • the single largest sector of Australia's economy is unpaid childcare,

  • and the second-largest sector is all the rest of the unpaid work,

  • before banking and insurance and financial intermediation services

  • clock in at the largest part of the market sector.

  • Just last year, the Premier of the Victoria state of Australia

  • declared that half of that state's GDP

  • was, in fact, the value of all the unpaid work.

  • Now, as a policy maker,

  • you cannot make good policy

  • if the single largest sector of your nation's economy

  • is not visible.

  • You can't presume to know where the needs are.

  • You can't locate time poverty.

  • You can't address the most critical issues of need.

  • So what can go in the place of GDP?

  • Well, GDP has got many other problems, OK?

  • We don't behave in a way that assists GDP.

  • Large numbers of people around the planet

  • are now using household assets -- their cars, their homes, themselves --

  • for Uber, for Airbnb.

  • And no, we're not supposed to use assets from the unpaid sector

  • to make money in the market sector.

  • This is confusing!

  • (Laughter)

  • And very difficult to measure.

  • So economists don't want to know

  • what's wrong with their most important GDP,

  • and I think they've got so many problems, they can just move off to a quiet corner

  • and continue to publish that

  • and not come anywhere near the rest of us

  • with this talk of capitals

  • and natural assets

  • and other ways in which to colonize the rest of our lives.

  • I think time use is the most important indicator going forward.

  • Every one of us has exactly the same amount of it.

  • If there are going to be critical issues as we move forward,

  • we need a solid database,

  • because whatever we change away from the GDP,

  • we're going to be stuck with it for about 50 years,

  • and we need something that's solid and immutable

  • and that everybody understands,

  • because if I put time use data in front of you,

  • you'll immediately start nodding.

  • You'll immediately start recognizing what it means.

  • And, honestly,

  • if I put the GDP data in front of you,

  • a lot of you would prefer to leave for morning tea.

  • (Laughter)

  • We also need to be looking at the quality of our environment.

  • As every year goes past, we get much better

  • at measuring the devastation of it,

  • of measuring how little we protect anymore.

  • And yet, with climate change,

  • we don't all have to be scientists to see, to feel, to know

  • what is happening to our beautiful planet.

  • We need, in this country,

  • the paramountcy of what we can learn from kaitiakitanga,

  • from whanaungatanaga,

  • from what Maori, who have been here for centuries, can teach us.

  • When you're in parliament,

  • and you're not in an economist's frame of mind,

  • you make decisions across a range of data.

  • You look at the trade-offs.

  • You think deeply about implications

    <