Placeholder Image

字幕表 動画を再生する

審査済み この字幕は審査済みです
  • You already know that your blood type is important.


  • If you've lost a lot of blood, getting a transfusion of the wrong stuff can be deadly.


  • But did you know that whether you're A, B, AB, or O can also put you at higher risk for things like malaria, cholera, and heart disease?

    でも、血液型が A、B、AB、O のどれに当てはまるかによって、マラリアやコレラ、心臓病などのリスクも高まること、知っていましたか?

  • The blood type you have is the result of a specific kind of antigenin this case, a type of sugaron the surface of your red blood cells.


  • If you have the A antigen, you're type A; if you have the B antigen, you're B.

    A 抗原を持っているとA型になり、B 抗原を持っているとB 型になります。

  • If you have both, you're AB, and if you have neither, you're O.

    両方の抗原を持っていると AB 型になり、両方とも持っていないと、O 型になります。

  • But here's the thing: There's more to your blood's alphabet soup than just those three letters.

    ここで重要な点があります。血液型というのは、この 3 種類のアルファベット以上に奥深いものなのです。

  • You also have another kind of antigenone you've probably never heard of: the H antigen.

    抗原には、もう 1 種類あるのです―おそらく、聞いたことがないでしょうが、H 抗原というものです。

  • The A and B that you always hear about are really extra sugars that get added to antigen H.

    よく耳にする A や B というのは、H 抗原に余分な糖が付いた状態です。

  • And what's more, all of these sugars aren't just on your red blood cells.


  • They also appear in your guts, and in other compounds that are swimming around in your blood, where they interact with pathogens and toxins and even parts of your own immune system, to make you either more or less vulnerable to certain infectious diseases.


  • For example, it turns out that having type O blood can help you, if you contract malaria.

    例えばマラリアにかかった場合、O 型だと利点があることが分かっています。

  • One of the big dangers of malaria is when your red blood cells begin to clump together, forming characteristic flower-shaped patterns known as rosettes.

    マラリアにおける危険の 1 つが、赤血球が凝集し、ロゼットと呼ばれる特徴的な花形を形成してしまうことです。

  • They form when an infected red blood cell sticks to uninfected red blood cells—a process that's helped along by A and B antigens.


  • As a result, people with A, or B, or AB blood tend to develop more and bigger rosettes if they get malaria.

    その結果、血液型が A 型、B 型、AB 型の人がマラリアに感染すると、より大きなロゼットが多く作られてしまう傾向にあるのです。

  • These cell clusters can get lodged in tiny blood vesselsoften in your brainand block blood flow.


  • Which is bad enough.


  • But when rosettes get tucked away like this, it also prevents the infected cells from being cleaned up by your body's natural defenses.


  • All of this means that people with A or B or AB blood are at higher risk for a severe case of malaria than people with type O.

    つまり、血液型が A 型、B 型、AB 型の人は、O 型の人に比べ、マラリアが重症化するリスクにあるのです。

  • But, type O blood has its downsides, too.

    でも、O 型にも欠点があります。

  • You may fare better with malaria if you're an O, but you'll probably do worse against certain strains of the bacteria that cause cholera.

    O 型だとマラリアでは健闘できるかもしれませんが、コレラを引き起こす菌株とは、おそらく上手く闘えないでしょう。

  • During an outbreak of cholera in Peru in the early 90s, people with type O blood were 8 times more likely to be hospitalized.

    1990 年代初め、ペルーでコレラが大流行した時、O 型の人の入院率は、8 倍高かったのです。

  • And it turns out that type O blood is least common in places like the Ganges River Delta, where cholera has been making people sick for centuries.


  • While scientists still don't fully understand what's going on here, one idea is that having A or B antigens might help prevent the cholera toxin from binding as firmly to some of your cells.

    A 抗原やB 抗原により、コレラ毒素と体内の細胞との密接な結合を防ぐのではないか、と考えられていますが、この仕組みについては、科学者らもまだ解明できていません。

  • But this protection doesn't take place in your blood.


  • Instead, it's the result of antigens on the cells that line your intestines.


  • That's where the cholera toxin does its work, making your cells pump out water and electrolytes, and causing the diarrhea that makes cholera such a fast killer.


  • For people who have As and Bs on these cells, the cholera toxin can still bind to them.

    腸壁の細胞に A 抗原や B 抗原が含まれていても、コレラ毒素は細胞と結合します。

  • But it binds even more strongly to the H antigen.

    しかしコレラ毒素は、H 抗原とより強く結びつくのです。

  • And since H is the antigen that Type O people have, Os are at greater risk for a more severe case of cholera.

    O 型の人は H 抗原を持っているため、コレラが重症化するリスクにあるのです。

  • Finally, the antigens that determine your blood type can also affect your risk for heart disease.


  • Here, it is the antigens in your blood that call the shots.


  • But not the ones on your red blood cells.


  • Instead, the key is the antigens on something called your von Willebrand factor.


  • It sounds like the name of a German technopop band.


  • But von Willebrand factor is a protein that helps your blood form clots.


  • Obviously, you want to have enough von Willebrand factor in your blood to stop bleeding in case of an injury.


  • But having too much of it in your circulation can create clots in places you don't want, and trigger a heart attack, or a stroke.


  • Thankfully, your body routinely sweeps out some of this factor.


  • Scientists haven't quite figured it out yet but for some reason if your von Willebrand factor has either the A or B antigens on them, that clearance is harder to do.


  • As a result, people with type A, B or AB blood have about 25 percent more of this clotting factor in their blood.

    その結果、血液型が A 型、B 型、AB 型の人は、血塊を作りやすくなるフォン・ヴィレブランド因子を、25%多く持っているのです。

  • This may explain why researchers have consistently found higher rates of heart disease, heart attack, and stroke in people with A, B, or AB blood, compared to those with O.

    O 型に比べ、A 型、B 型、AB 型の人の心臓病、心臓発作、脳卒中の発生率が常に高い理由が、これで説明できるかもしれません。

  • Now, in the grand scheme of things, your blood type is only a bit player when it comes to what diseases you might get.


  • Eating too many hamburgers and not working out, for instance, are almost certainly more damaging to your heart than having A or B antigens on your blood cells.


  • But scientists hope to figure out why certain blood types help protect you from certain conditions, while making others worse.


  • The hope is that, one day, everyone will be able benefit, whether you're an A, B, AB, or an O.

    A 型、B 型、AB 型、O 型のどれであろうと、いつの日か、皆が恩恵を受けられるようになると良いですね。

  • Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow, which was brought to you by our patrons on Patreon.


  • If you want to help support this show, just go to


  • And don't forget to go to and subscribe!でチャンネル登録するのも、お忘れなく!

You already know that your blood type is important.


審査済み この字幕は審査済みです

動画の操作 ここで「動画」の調整と「字幕」の表示を設定することができます

B1 中級 日本語 抗原 血液 コレラ 因子 マラリア 細胞

血液型から得られる利益や害とは? (How Your Blood Type Protects and Hurts You)

  • 6389 295
    Seraya に公開 2020 年 04 月 27 日