字幕表 動画を再生する 英語字幕をプリント I'm a magician, and I write about the principles of illusion. I also construct crossword puzzles for The New York Times. What's the connection? Well, in my experience, all magic tricks are puzzles designed to fool your brain. Let me give you an example. Have our cameraman come on stage here. Wonderful. Watch this. This trick works because of one basic reality. Your mind is a liar. You see point A and point B and your brain tells you a single spoon runs the lengths. That's called an illusion. As a magician, I use illusions to entertain people. But my goal here right now is to do something a little bit different. I want to show you how you can see through the illusions and the deceptions that surround you in your everyday life. But first you need to understand. Why are we all susceptible to illusions? There's one simple answer. Survival. The truth is, were constantly being bombarded by gazillions of stimuli, from subatomic particles to light beams from Galaxies far, far away, not to mention demanding bosses ringing cellphones, Facebook, YouTube, Twitter and instagram. And if we had to attend all of this at once, our grey matter would fry within nanoseconds. We won't be able to function, but fortunately, evolution has presented us with a fairly effective work around. We register a tiny fraction of the information that's in front of us, and from there we extrapolate our brains. Facilitate this process by narrowing the frame. That's our area of focus to highlight what we most in need and want to pay attention to. But here's the crazy thing. Even though we only detect a sliver of the information that's out there, we totally and completely trust our powers of perception. Seeing is believing right. This equation, of course, gives us confidence in our judgment. It guides our choice off friends of leaders of partners. It helps us decide where to live, how to vote and what to buy. But this natural tendency to ignore the many significant gaps in our awareness also leaves us vulnerable to illusion. Consider this common road accident. Ah, car turns left in front of an oncoming motorcycle. Often, the car's driver reports that he looks right at the motorcycle but then turns in front of it anyway. Why, Because of a gap in the driver's cognitive frame, that frame is focused so tightly on cars on Lee that it dismisses anything that doesn't resemble a car. So much for the motorcycle. Here's another example in Simon's and Chabris famous psychology experiment. Participants watching a video were asked to count the number of passes of a basketball. Most were so tightly framed on the ball that they failed to notice the gorilla, walk into the middle, beat its chest and then walk off again. Because the gorilla wasn't part of the task, the participants brains treated it as a relevant and potentially distracting information. They ignored it. This concept of framing is central to a magician's most important tool. Misdirection. Magicians want you to believe that we can defy the laws of physics. What we're really doing is misdirecting you into the frame of illusion. Think of the frame as a directors of view finder. It's the area where we want you to pay attention while the real work happens outside of the frame. And it helps that the frame is movable. Like if I wanted to steal something from my pocket, I might first reach up here, shifting the frame as I pull a shiny coin out of the air. The great Dutch magician Tommy Wonder describes misdirection as the technique off, offering your audience something off greater interest. When something new and novel is introduced, it automatically reframes your attention because this shiny coin cannot be ignored. But the value of misdirection is not just for magicians. Think about politicians who are under fire for one issue. They're experts at creating new issues to consume the band with of the media. And in this day and age, any politician with a Twitter account can be a master miss director. But not all misdirection changes the frame. So obviously, with cognitive misdirection, the frame never moves. Instead, the audiences mental thought process is shifted inside the frame. The key here is the very human inability to hold two interpretations of a single stimulus. At the same time, take a look at Ruben's vase. As hard as you might try, you simply cannot see both the two faces and the vase simultaneously and in magic when I'm performing. Similarly, I'm wait, frame your attention on this box, but misdirect only your conception of that action. That's because I mess with your hardwired assumption that each action on Lee has a single function that I can't put one object away and at the same time take out another conceptual. Reframing is a favorite tool of marketing executives and policy makers in the United Kingdom and United States. For example, opponents of the inheritance tax attacks that applies to only the very wealthy describe it as a death tax, And this makes voters think that it applies to everyone. That's cognitive misdirection. Physical misdirection and cognitive misdirection are effective principles, but the best magic tricks use them in combination. Illusionists called this mixing methods and it further off your skates, the solution to the puzzle. And if it's okay with you guys, I would like to demonstrate some of this for you right here on this stage. Would you like to see some magic? Yes. Okay. In a moment, I'll perform some sleight of hand on the table. Our cameraman will kindly come out again, and he will put it up on the screen So all of you can enjoy the magic of close. Wonderful. But first on the help from one of you. So I have a ball here, and I'm going to throw this into the audience. We're gonna play some music have some fun batting it around. And when the music stops, whoever's holding the ball will be my random volunteer. Are you ready to have some fun? Amsterdam? All right, All right. Here we go. Knocked that ball around. Let's get it over here. Oh, he kicks it. Wonderful. All right. Oh, wow. Oh, I need you to please think of a playing card, but don't choose one. That's obvious. Like the ace of spades. Don't choose a common one. Got one. You're thinking of a card? Would you say your card out loud? It's okay if I hear it. It's not that kind of trick. Would you say your card? The J of hearts? The jack of hearts. Okay, ladies and gentlemen, an experiment involving the jack of hearts. Okay, uh, now, if I give the cards a few cuts and a little bit of a mix watch what happens as I spread the cards on the table. See how long it takes you to find the jack of hearts. You don't see it, right? That's because it's underneath the cup. This is a classic exercise in misdirection. And here's how it works. I misdirect you with my voice While you're listening to me, I take the jack of hearts and I slip it underneath the cup. Now it's not as obvious as that, but you get the idea. Let's have some fun. If I take the Jack and I cut it into the middle of the deck and spread the cards on the table, watches your card returns underneath the cup again. Oh, no. Now you're paying attention. Yes, thank you. I know the cup is a little bit confusing, so I'll use just the deck of cards. Only I'll take the jack of Hearts and I'll slip it into the middle of the deck. And as I snap my fingers, the jack returns to the top. I'll give it some overhand shuffle is a little bit of a mix like this and some swivel cuts as well. And if I take a card like the seven of hearts, watch what happens. I'm gonna rub it here on my sleeve. The seven changes into your card, the jack of hearts. Thank you, but I'm gonna give it a very good mix. Some riffle shuffles because I'm an honest magician. That's one and one more for good measure and watch as I spread through the cars. You can see that the jack is nowhere to be found. No, wait. I've found it. It's underneath the cup. That's pretty cool, right? I'm gonna try one more thing for you and it involves just the card. So watch carefully as I fooled the card a few times. That's once No, Fold it down nice and tight like this and watch what happens because this exercise in misdirection, it raises a new question and it's not. Did you see your card? But did you see the gorilla? No. Really? No, really. Did you see the gorilla? A couple? My points here tonight is that attention is one of your most valuable resource is, and in many ways were wired to fall for illusions. And those who employ misdirection have certain advantages over those who unquestioningly believe their own lying eyes. But forewarned is forearmed. The same principles that make magic possible can also increase your perceptiveness and make you less vulnerable to deception. So sharpen your focus and wide in your frame. Question what seems obvious, and above all, pay attention to your attention.